Ch, ch, ch, ch, changes

One night at the end of the XXth century, a famous British TV program announced the end of the century including biggest changes ever, while images of all kind of technological advances were projected, from modern planes to nuclear mushrooms. The historian Ian Mortimer saw the connection between change and technology clearly, but not so clearly such a statement. He spent two years reviewing the last ten centuries of the Western civilization, highlightening from each one the key events and concluding that it is true that the XXth century includes a lot of big changes, but the rest of the centuries are no slouch. Including the XXIst, which started unruly.

XI: Castles and kingdoms

From the year 1000 the feudal scene was drastically modified by castles. A shelter to be safe from the enemy attacks strengthened the link between the lord and his lands, because even if a retirement in the battle camp was forced, he could come back and claim them —just in the case he was able to keep the control of the castles—. This is why the lords were setting in their possesions by fidelizing their vassals to defend them, fact that lead to greater stability that allowed them to begin to think of themselves as rulers of a territory closer to a kingdom or country than to a tribe or village.

Some castles are so strong that have survived till now, as Loarre, built in the XIth century at the entrance of the Aragon Pirinees, which is today one of the best conserved Romanic buildings in Europe — Image Unknown Author

XII: The control of knowledge

Later on, but not so later on, the settlement of hundred new monasteries triggered an explosion of the spread of knowledge. Monks seeking a wider comprehension of God travelled among them, specially among those of their same order, spreading news and sharing theological and historical papers and works which were stored in their libraries as currently is made in the Internet. The crusades, the Inquisition and the settlement of a parroquial system —that last till now— increased the direct influence of the Church over the people and the powerful idea of the Purgatory spread over every head.

Umberto Eco famous novel reflects very well the relationship of the medieval Church with knowledge, while fray William of Baskerville and his pupil Adso de Melk investigate the crimes of an abbey — Image Jean-Jacques Annaud (‘The name of the rose’, 1986).

XIII: A wide range of variety

The appearance of the medieval market involved a huge change in the life of the people: from a subsistence and domestic consumption to the possibility of buying things, in addition of the access to exotics and till then unthinkable items such as fabrics, spices or dyes. The barter was the main character of the early transactions, but as the markets and fairs developed around Europe, money started to compete with land property as source of power until it became the only way to do business.

Over time, medieval markets and fairs also served to share celebrations and strengthen ties — Image Pieter Brueghel the Younger (‘A village fair in honor of Saint Hubert and Saint Anthony’, 1564)

XIV: The Plague and class consciousness

In 1346 it was thought illness was a divine punishment, but the Black Plague killed more than a third of the Eurasian population in the next five years, and the shock was so huge that people started to rethink their relationship with the power, including even a God that allowed newborns to die without time to sin. That strenghtened the self-esteem of the working class, that started to rebel against their employers in uprisings as the Grande Jacquerie in France in 1358, or the Rebellion of the Farmers in England in 1381.

It is believed that the usual thing was five days from contagion to death, but the legend says that with the Black Plague it was possible to be healhty in the morning, have fever in the afternoon and die in the night, between horrible pains and stinky odors made by the inflammation of the lynf nodes — Image Unknown Author (‘The plague of the XIV century’ details of the fresco ‘The life of San Sebastian’, San Sebastian chapel, Lanslevillard, France, 1411)

XV: Expanding horizons

Beyond the tremendous importance of adding a new continent to the world map with the size of America, the adventure of Colon and his followers also brought along a very important intelectual turn. Explorers broke the prevailing myth in which Greeks and Romans knew all that was worth knowing, and in addition they forced the scholars to left their self-indulgent attitude: if they missed a whole continent, who knows what else could be missed.

In the 1507 planisphere ‘Universalis Cosmographia’ America is first named; with it the world map suffered a great transformation, and also the minds — Image Martin Waldseemüller

XVI: Sacred reading for all

Although the press had been invented in 1455, the truth is that in the beginning few books were printed, usually in Latin and they were so expensive that almost nobody could pay for them. The translation of the Bible to vernacular languages was the real hit and it took place along the whole century. A book people wanted to understand made Europeans want to read and write, fact that allowed a new kind of communication between God and the people: without intermediaries.

The German Bible of Luther and the rest of translations in different languages helped to improve the fulfillment of law and order, which reduced the crime rate to half — Image David Shane

XVII: And yet it moves

Galileo was condemned in 1633 for saying that Earth was moving around the Sun, nevertheless in fact it moves, and in the next years many papers about it were published, and the first scientific societies were founded: the Academia Naturae Curiosorum —after Leopoldina— in Baviera in 1652, the Royal Society in London in 1660 and the Academie des Sciences in Paris in 1666. The change was more sociocultural than technological, changing the authority of the vital matters from the Church to Science, from God to the Man. If you got very ill in 1600 you would call a priest, in 1700 a doctor.

The heliocentric model was already proposed in the 3rd century BC by Aristarchus of Samos, although the world remained geocentric until the arrival of the ‘De revolutionibus orbium coelestium’ of Copernicus, twenty centuries later — Image A&

XVIII: The illustrate revolution

The main European thinkers embraced Illustration strongly and questioned the legitimation of the power to repress people. Montesquieu, Voltaire and in particular Rousseau —with the publication of ‘The social contract’ in 1762— proclaimed that a State is unfair if treats individuals unproperly, and the French Revolution was mainly inspired by those ideas. A new concept of freedom arised, and they started to talk about human rights and the relationship between men and State was rethought.

The French Revolution marked the beginning of the Contemporary Age by creating the concept of popular sovereignty and laying the foundations of modern democracy — Image Eugène Delacroix (‘Liberty leading the People’, 1830)

XIX: Communication and speed

A message or a parcel of the year 1830 took long to reach their destination, at least what it took a horse to cover the distance in between these two points. The train and the steam ship were key for the commerce development and spezialitation and for the massive distribution of basic products, something that made disappear the periods of famine in times of peace. Around 1870, telephone changed the speed of information, messages took just an electric pulse to arrive.

Train allowed to the world be closer to the rest of the world — Image Enciclopedia Britannica

XX: War overflows

Until the First World War only soldiers were killed in war. Society was horrified with the number of civil deads, specially after the creation and released of the atomic bomb in the Second World War, that meant humanity had the capacity for the first time in their history, of destroying the whole planet. The USA and the URSS started the so called Cold War and the European Union was created in order to avoid new wars. After the failure of the Soviet communism in 1989 the capitalist occidental values, that in the 1900 were just along Europe, North America and Oceania, spread worldwide.

The Fat Man atomic bomb was realeased over the Japanese city of Nagasaki in 1945 resulting in the end of the Second World War — Image US National Archives

XXI: Universal pandemic

In November 2019, a virus that passed from bats to humans was the origin of a pandemic which affected quickly all countries in a globalized world, and afterwards several waves and mutations, the seven thousand million population of the Earth became a thousand million. At first, the role of State was essential and many omen and dreamers predicted the return of the failed Communism, although after some time states disappeared and in a natural way Universalism started to rule the world as a new kind of government, based in self-awareness that everything existing is an organic system we belong to, and we should better live in harmony. No doubt good old Ian Mortimer would like to look into it.

Picture made with electronic microscope of a bunch of coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, in which we can clearly see the surrounding crown of the proteins that give its name to the virus — Image NIAID
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array(4) { [0]=> object(WP_Post)#1750 (24) { ["ID"]=> int(3459) ["post_author"]=> string(4) "2049" ["post_date"]=> string(19) "2012-11-26 00:01:22" ["post_date_gmt"]=> string(19) "2012-11-25 23:01:22" ["post_content"]=> string(3175) "'Una época de cambios tan continuos dificulta las hipótesis sobre el futuro'. Licenciado en filología hispánica, empezó a trabajar en publicidad en Vinizius, pequeño estudio que fundó junto a su hermano. Después pasó por varias agencias como Vizeversa, Contrapunto, Casadevall Pedreño SPR y Delvico Bates, antes de fundar *S,C,P,F… en 1996 junto a Luis Cuesta, Ignasi Puig y Félix Fernández de Castro. A lo largo de su carrera ha trabajado en campañas que han ganado premios en los principales festivales nacionales e internacionales y además ha sido jurado en un gran número de ellos, como el de Cannes, el británico D&AD, el Club de Creativos o el de San Sebastián. Algunos de los reconocimientos individuales que ha recibido son 'Mejor creativo del siglo' (revista Anuncios, 2000), único español incluido en la lista '100 Top Creative Minds' (Shots Magazine, 2007), 'Mejor creativo de la década' (revista El Publicista, 2009), miembro del Salón de la Fama de Iberoamérica (Festival Iberoamericano de Publicidad, 2009) y el Premio Nacional de Comunicación, en la categoría de Publicidad (Generalitat de Catalunya, 2009). Es además miembro de los boards de dos prestigiosas escuelas internacionales de publicidad (Miami Ad School en Hamburgo y Berlin School of Creative Leadership) y fue presidente de la junta directiva del Club de Creativos durante sus dos primeros años de existencia. En mayo de 2009 la editorial Espasa publicó su primer y hasta el momento único libro: 'Desde el otro lado del escaparate', una selección de sus reflexiones a propósito del oficio.'A time of such continuous changes hinders any hypotheses about the future'. Bachelor in Hispanic studies, he started his career in advertising at Vinizius, a small agency he founded along with his brother. Then he worked at several agencies such as Vizeversa, Contrapunto, Casadevall Pedreño SPR and Delvico Bates before founding *S,C,P,F… in 1996 together with Luis Cuesta, Ignasi Puig and Félix Fernández de Castro. Throughout his career he’s worked in campaigns awarded at the main national and international festivals, being also jury in many of them such as Cannes, the British D&AD, the Club de Creativos or San Sebastian. Some of the individual awards he’s received are: 'Best creative of the century' (Anuncios Magazine, 2000); the only Spanish included in the '100 Top Creative Minds' list (Shots Magazine, 2007); 'Best creative of the decade' (El Publicista Magazine, 2009); member of the Salón de la Fama de Iberoamérica (Latin American Advertising Festival, 2009) and the National Award of Communication in the advertising category (Generalitat of Catalonia, 2009). He’s also a board member in two prestigious international schools of advertising (Miami Ad School in Hamburg and Berlin School of Creative Leadership) and was president of the board of directors at the Club de Creativos during the first two years of its existence. In May 2009, Editorial Espasa published his first and so far only book: 'From the other side of the window', a selection of his reflections on the trade." 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["post_title"]=> string(113) "Catorce mil millones de años en dos horasFourteen billion years in two hours" ["post_excerpt"]=> string(0) "" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["comment_status"]=> string(6) "closed" ["ping_status"]=> string(6) "closed" ["post_password"]=> string(0) "" ["post_name"]=> string(35) "fourteen-billion-years-in-two-hours" ["to_ping"]=> string(0) "" ["pinged"]=> string(0) "" ["post_modified"]=> string(19) "2020-04-29 21:39:40" ["post_modified_gmt"]=> string(19) "2020-04-29 19:39:40" ["post_content_filtered"]=> string(0) "" ["post_parent"]=> int(0) ["guid"]=> string(29) "http://whatonline.org/?p=5859" ["menu_order"]=> int(0) ["post_type"]=> string(4) "post" ["post_mime_type"]=> string(0) "" ["comment_count"]=> string(1) "0" ["filter"]=> string(3) "raw" } [2]=> object(WP_Post)#1751 (24) { ["ID"]=> int(994) ["post_author"]=> string(4) "2049" ["post_date"]=> string(19) "2012-05-18 00:02:13" ["post_date_gmt"]=> string(19) "2012-05-17 22:02:13" ["post_content"]=> string(1620) "'El conocimiento y la conciencia de lo que somos va a cambiar nuestra manera de estar en el mundo'. Empezó a ejercer el periodismo a los 17 años y desde entonces ha viajado por todo el mundo, colaborando con diversas publicaciones y programas de radio de ámbito nacional. Su experiencia como reportera, realizando textos y fotos de carácter social, se centró fundamentalmente en Latinoamérica. Lleva diez años trabajando para La Vanguardia, donde impulsó el proyecto de 'La contra', las entrevistas que aparecen en la contraportada de dicho diario desde enero de 1998 y por las que ha recibido varios premios. Ha publicado tres cuentos —'La mujer cañón', 'La mirona' y 'Patitas de mosca'— y dos libros —'Biografía de una estrella' y 'El don de arder'—.'The knowledge and the awareness of what we are are going to change our way of being in the world'. She began as a journalist when she was 17 years old and since then she has travelled around the world, collaborating with several publications and nationwide radio programmes. Her experience as a reporter, producing texts and photos with a social accent, was primarily focus on Latin America. She has been working for ten years at La Vanguardia, where she launched 'La Contra', the interviews that appear on the back page of such newspaper since January 1998 and for which she has received many awards. She has published three stories —'La mujer cañon', 'La mirona' and 'Patitas de mosca'— and two books —'Biography of a Star' and 'The Gift to Burn'—." ["post_title"]=> string(112) "WHAT ABOUT: El futuro por Ima SanchísWHAT ABOUT: The future by Ima Sanchís" ["post_excerpt"]=> string(0) "" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["comment_status"]=> string(4) "open" ["ping_status"]=> string(4) "open" ["post_password"]=> string(0) "" ["post_name"]=> string(36) "what-about-the-future-by-ima-sanchis" ["to_ping"]=> string(0) "" ["pinged"]=> string(0) "" ["post_modified"]=> string(19) "2021-05-05 18:03:43" ["post_modified_gmt"]=> string(19) "2021-05-05 16:03:43" ["post_content_filtered"]=> string(0) "" ["post_parent"]=> int(0) ["guid"]=> string(28) "http://whatonline.org/?p=994" ["menu_order"]=> int(0) ["post_type"]=> string(4) "post" ["post_mime_type"]=> string(0) "" ["comment_count"]=> string(1) "2" ["filter"]=> string(3) "raw" } [3]=> object(WP_Post)#1909 (24) { ["ID"]=> int(5895) ["post_author"]=> string(3) "390" ["post_date"]=> string(19) "2019-06-16 00:01:00" ["post_date_gmt"]=> string(19) "2019-06-15 22:01:00" ["post_content"]=> string(14644) "La Historia, sus cambios y la evolución de las sociedades viene marcada por una tensión entre la conservación y el cambio, según S. Aguilar. La evolución de un ser o de una sociedad es el cambio que sucede de un estado concreto a uno siguiente y nuevo. El cambio es el resultado de la tensión entre las fuerzas que desean que lo que ya se tiene se conserve y las fuerzas que quieren que lo que se tiene cambie. Normalmente, las fuerzas de la conservación vienen representadas por el poder, por los que dominan, por el establishment, por la norma, por los pocos y los que concentran. Asimismo, las fuerzas de cambio suelen venir representadas y representan a la mayoría, el demos —los que trabajan con sus manos, el pueblo—, los que quieren que la estructura de poder les favorezca, los que no se conforman, los que quieren más, o mejor dicho lo que es suyo. En realidad, científicamente, lo anteriormente dicho no es correcto ni ortodoxo, porque realmente estas dos inercias que forman esta dinámica entre conservación y cambio no tienen cara ni identidad, son dos procesos sociales. Detengámonos aquí. A veces, después de un momento de cambio y de avance social o de aumento de derechos para la mayoría, ese estado de conquista se convierte en el estado primordial, el ser de las cosas, cómo es el mundo en ese momento concreto. El último período que ha sido así fueron los que se han llamado 'años dorados del capitalismo' (E. Hobsbawm), donde después el Estado de Bienestar amplio dotó de derechos y de un mayor bienestar a la gran mayoría —dejando aparte las críticas que se puedan hacer al Estado de Bienestar mismo—, y aunque en pocos momentos y normalmente muy breves de la Historia ha habido justicia social para la mayoría, las fuerzas de cambio han sido en esos momentos las que normalmente representan a las de conservación, en un intento de retornar a lo que se tenía, pero son, aunque conservadoras, fuerzas de cambio. El último episodio de estas características empezó durante los años 70, donde a partir de diferentes procesos las fuerzas de cambio fueron en este momento conservadoras, queriendo ir hacia atrás, quitándole a la clase trabajadora —es decir, a la mayoría— lo que habían conquistado las antiguas fuerzas de cambio. Los capitanes visibles de este proceso fueron como ya se sabe Thatcher en Inglaterra y Reagan en Estados Unidos. Esa inercia de cambio sólo empezó allí —también con sus antecedentes propios— y hoy seguimos dentro de esta inercia concreta dentro de la Historia. W_tatcheryreagan
Margaret Tatcher y Ronald Reagan, una relación que cambió la Historia — Imagen AP
Antes de eso vivíamos en un mundo que grandes del pensamiento, hoy vivos (A. Domènech y otros), han definido como un mundo post-antifascista, donde después del horror de los fascismos europeos —tristemente en España duró mucho más— y de las dos grandes guerras y antes el crack del 29, la inercia fue a favor del cambio y esta vez a favor de la mayoría. Se hizo la Declaración de los Derechos Humanos (1948) hasta pasar a la creación de los Estados de Derecho —o de Bienestar—, con una lógica de derechos y mayor bienestar y libertad para todos, donde había un capitalismo controlado, regulado, mayor sindicalismo, organización y conciencia obrera. Donde el mercado se regulaba y la noción de fraternidad y colectividad humana eran un valor cada vez menos cuestionable, tanto para el poder como para el pueblo. Un momento en que la política económica por ejemplo de EEUU en los años 50, con Eisenhower —sin querer en ningún caso idealizar la política del político mencionado—, tenían una tasa impositiva del 91% para las rentas más altas de 400.000 $. Sí, sí, del 91% de redistribución a la federación de estados; aunque parezca increíble y no nos acordemos, hubo unos años en que el mundo, por lo menos a nivel económico, funcionó así. Es curioso que no lo recordemos y que datos como este hoy nos sorprendan ¡y sólo han pasado sesenta años! Y parece que sea un mundo que nunca existió. Pero de nuevo vinieron las fuerzas del cambio, esta vez para desposeernos, para privatizar, para acumular y el capitalismo 'dorado' se fue convirtiendo en un capitalismo feroz, caníbal. Hoy vivimos dentro de esa inercia. La tensión no cesa nunca, pero claramente, hoy, la balanza está en manos de los que tiran de la dinámica de la Historia para que la mayoría no avancemos y seamos esclavos del capital, del trabajo y de lo privado, y esta vez a nivel planetario, rompiendo todas las fronteras, todo el mundo, capitalista o no, es engullido por este 'tren sin frenos' —Hobsbawm de nuevo— que es el capitalismo contemporáneo. Se podría decir también que la dinámica de la Historia es una lucha de clases, lo dijo el odiado y querido Marx, pero para decirlo de una manera menos 'incómoda', una lucha entre oligarquía —el poder de unos pocos y los que ostentan el poder y la propiedad y no dependen de nadie para vivir, o mejor dicho del trabajo de muchos— y democracia —el gobierno de muchos, de todos, de los que trabajan con sus manos—. Los momentos de triunfo de la democracia, de la voluntad del pueblo y de lo que beneficia al pueblo, han sido pocos y breves en comparación a los que ha dominado la oligarquía. Hoy vivimos en oligarquía, degenerada en una auténtica plutocracia —en griego antiguo, ploutos 'riqueza' y kratos 'gobierno'—, el poder lo tiene el poder mismo, en un proceso de acumulación por desposesión (D. Harvey), el poder financiero manda, el político claudica y la sociedad sufre.
La dinámica de la Historia es una constante lucha de clases, según Karl Marx — Imagen Unknown Author
Pero hay una diferencia crucial entre los otros momentos y el de ahora. Hoy los individuos de lo que se llaman sociedades avanzadas y las que no lo son, estamos, o podemos estar y valga la redundancia, muy avanzados a nivel de ideas, tenemos mucho conocimiento, y tenemos conocimiento o deberíamos tenerlo de todo lo dicho —venimos de lo que se ha llamado la Sociedad del Conocimiento—, o por lo menos tenemos un pasado al que podemos acudir, para recordar y aprender. Nos han arrebatado algo que ya había sido nuestro, que ya no era discutido, que se pactó y se firmó, como la Declaración de los Derechos Humanos, que sea la mejor que se pueda tener o no —no entraré a valorar— es la que tenemos por el momento, y empezando por el primero de sus artículos y el más englobante 'todas las personas tiene derecho a nacer libres e iguales', ni siquiera en las sociedades donde no existen resistencias culturales para entenderlo como verdadero, y hasta el último de ellos, no se asumen y son vilipendiados por este sucio, corrupto y obeso sistema de poder. La tensión una vez más está servida, el proceso de cambio abierto, el resultado dependerá de quién tire más y con más fuerza de la cuerda que tensa la dinámica entre la conservación y el cambio, pero no lo olvidemos: nosotros somos más y es al fin y al cabo nuestra existencia la que está en juego. Recurramos a la Historia, nos ofrece mucho de lo que aprender.The History, its changes and evolution of societies is marked by a tension between conservation and change, according S. Aguilar. The evolution of a being or a society is the change that happens in one concrete state to a different and new concrete state. The change is the result of the tension between the forces that want to preserve what exists and the forces that want to change what exists. Typically, conservation forces are represented by the power, by dominators, the establishment, by the standard, and the few that concentrate. Also, the forces of change usually come represented and represent the majority, the demos —those who work with their hands, the people—, those who want the power structure that favors them, those who do not conform, those who want more, or what is really here. Scientifically, the above is not correct or orthodox, because really these two inertias that make up this dynamic between conservation and change, no have face or identity, are two social processes. Let's stop here. Sometimes, after a moment of change and social advancement or increased rights for most, this state of conquest, becomes the primordial state, the being of things,the reality of the world at that particular time. The last period has been like that, what has been called 'the golden age of capitalism' (E. Hobsbawm), where after the comprehensive Welfare State, endowed with rights and greater welfare for the vast majority —leaving aside criticism that can be made to the welfare state itself—, and even in a few moments and usually very brief history there have been social justice for the majority, the forces of change have been at that time which typically represent the conservation, in an attempt to return to what it was, but even conservative forces of change. The last episode of this kind began in the 70s, where from different processes, the forces of change were at this conservative moment, wanting to go back, depriving the working class, the majority, which had conquered the ancient forces of change. the visible faces of this process were as you know, Thatcher in Britain and Reagan in the United States. That change process started there —also with its own History— and today we continue in this particular inertia within the History. W_tatcheryreagan
Margaret Thatcher and Ronald Reagan, a relationship that changed History — Image AP
Before that, we lived in a world of big thinkers alive today (A. Domènech and others) have defined as a post-fascist world where after the horror of European fascism —sadly lasted more in Spain— and two large wars and before the crack of 29, was the inertia for change and this time in favor of the majority. Declaration of Human Rights (1948) was created, after the Welfare state, with a logic of rights and greater well-being and freedom for all, where there was a controlled capitalism, regulated, more unionism, organization and class consciousness. The market was regulated and the notion of human brotherhood and community were an increasingly questionable value, by the power and by the people. A time when economic policy for example U.S. in the 50s, with Eisenhower —not wanting in any case idealize political policy mentioned—, the highest incomes of $400,000 had a tax rate of 91%, yes, yes redistribution of 91% of the federation of states, incredible today, there was a time, the world at least economically, it worked well. Interestingly, data like this surprise us today, and only happened 60 years ago and it seems to be a world that never existed. But back came the forces of change, this time to dispossess us, to privatize, to accumulate and capitalism 'gold' was becoming fierce, cannibalistic capitalism. Today we live within that inertia. The tension never ceases, but clearly, now, the balance is in the hands of pulling the dynamics of History that most do not move forward and be slaves to capital and private and this time on a global level, breaking all the borders, the whole capitalist world or not is engulfed by this 'runaway train' —Hobsbawm again— that is contemporary Capitalism. One could also say that the dynamics of history is a class struggle, said hated and loved Marx, but to put it in a less 'controversy' way, a struggle between oligarchy —power of the few and those who hold power and property and not depends on anyone else to live, or rather the work of many— and democracy —rule by many, all of which work with their hands—. The moments of triumph of democracy, the will of the people and benefiting the people, have been few and brief compared to the oligarchy that has dominated. Today we live in oligarchy degenerate to a true plutocracy —Ancient Greek, ploutos 'wealth' and kratos 'government'— the power has the power itself, in an inertia of accumulation by dispossession (D. Harvey), financial power controls, politics obeys and society suffers.
The dynamics of History is a constant class struggle, according to Karl Marx — Image Unknown Author
But there is a crucial difference between the other times and now. Today individuals from what are called advanced societies and those that are not, we are, or we can be and despite the redundancy, very advanced level of ideas, we have a lot of knowledge, and we are aware or ought to have of all this —come of what has been called the knowledge society—, or at least have a past to which we can turn to remember and learn. We have taken something that had been ours, it was not discussed, it was agreed and signed the Declaration of Human Rights, which is the best or not (not go to rating) is what we have for the moment, and starting with the first article and the more encompassing 'all persons have the right to be born free and equal', even in societies where there are no cultural resistance to understand it as true, and every last one of them, not assume and are vilified by this dirty, obese and corrupt system of power. The tension is served, the process of open exchange, the result depends on who pull more and stronger rope that tightens the dynamic between conservation and change, but we can't forget, we are more and in the end out our existence that is at stake. Have recourse to history, it offers a lot to learn." ["post_title"]=> string(91) "Sobre la dinámica de la HistoriaOn dynamics of History" ["post_excerpt"]=> string(0) "" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["comment_status"]=> string(6) "closed" ["ping_status"]=> string(6) "closed" ["post_password"]=> string(0) "" ["post_name"]=> string(22) "on-dynamics-of-history" ["to_ping"]=> string(0) "" ["pinged"]=> string(0) "" ["post_modified"]=> string(19) "2021-03-14 22:46:12" ["post_modified_gmt"]=> string(19) "2021-03-14 21:46:12" ["post_content_filtered"]=> string(0) "" ["post_parent"]=> int(0) ["guid"]=> string(29) "http://whatonline.org/?p=5895" ["menu_order"]=> int(0) ["post_type"]=> string(4) "post" ["post_mime_type"]=> string(0) "" ["comment_count"]=> string(1) "0" ["filter"]=> string(3) "raw" } }