11/08/2014

How to choose correctly

Michael J Sandel is a philosopher and a professor at Harvard University in Justice and Political Philosophy. He have more than two decades teaching the subject Justice, which has been established as the subject with more registrations Harvard’s history with over 14,000 trainees. Sandel belongs to the school of thought of Communitarianism and is known for his criticism of the Theory of Justice by John Rawls and his work ethic and study on genetic engineering and bioethics in general. In his book What money can not buy challenges the idea of the supposed neutrality of markets in morally level. Advocating the importance and existence of morality and justice —or lack thereof— in all acts and walks of life not only in the personal but also political, economic and spiritual-religious, areas in this way are affected each other.

This video is one of the twelve chapters of a series co-produced by WGBH and Harvard University called Justice: What is the right thing to do?, where abridged versions of the thinker classes are offered in University.

This chapter is the presentation of the course, which addresses the issue of ethics and morality in the practical sense, deals with moral dilemmas through questions where we must choose what is right. Through a few simple assumptions and dilemmas, Sandel reflects the history and heritage in this vast vast subject of the giants of thought in political philosophy, justice, ethics and morality as Aristotle, Kant, Locke or Stuart Mill. Dilemmas eternal and present in political and moral philosophy from the beginning, always open but that condition our behavior at the individual level but also political and community.

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To choose is to resign, and sometimes you have to do it. How to know when? —Image Pexels

His questions and conclusions through a format oriented class discussion —Socratic method— through questions and answers by establishing a dialogue with students —or viewers— where theory becomes practice by integrating moral issues in the individual himself to understand the consequences of our ideas and budgets and moral codes at the community level, in order to reach a true and deep understanding of justice and as, according to the manner in which these dilemmas and moral resolve which hides behind thought and practice can understand the history and some of the most immoral acts we have lived as Humanity, and perhaps in the future we can remedy.

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array(4) { [0]=> object(WP_Post)#1729 (24) { ["ID"]=> int(5248) ["post_author"]=> string(4) "2049" ["post_date"]=> string(19) "2013-09-16 00:01:25" ["post_date_gmt"]=> string(19) "2013-09-15 22:01:25" ["post_content"]=> string(5626) "La concepción de la vida como un sueño es muy antigua. Existen referencias a esa idea en épocas y culturas tan dispares como la tradición hindú, la mística persa, la filosofía griega o la moral judeocristiana. Parvati es la diosa hindú de los sueños, pero también lo es de los nacimientos y de todo aquello relacionado con la creación, lo que sugiere que la tradición hindú otorga a los sueños una capacidad creativa y el poder de fabricar algo que no existía anteriormente en el mundo material. Una de las obras más importantes de la cultura persa y árabe es Las mil y una noches, en muchos de cuyos cuentos se trata el tema de los sueños, que se muestra como un juego de espejos en los que la realidad se ve reflejada y nos impide ver lo que realmente tenemos alrededor. El ejemplo más claro es El sueño del campesino, también conocido como Cuento del durmiente despierto, en el que un rey y un mendigo intercambian sus papeles y el segundo termina creyendo que todo ha sido un sueño. El mito de la caverna es una narración alegórica en la que el filósofo griego Platón explica su teoría de la existencia de dos mundos, el sensible y el de las ideas, y describe metafóricamente la situación en la que se encuentra el ser humano ante ellos: la vida transcurre en una especie de ensoñación, ignorante y gobernada por los sentidos, de la que sólo se puede despertar a través de la razón, para alcanzar el verdadero conocimiento. W_mitodelacaverna
'Alegoría de la caverna de Platón', Jan Saenredam, 1604
El escritor español Calderón de la Barca, en su obra La vida es sueño, plantea una dicotomía entre la vida terrenal y la vida celestial en la que la primera queda equiparada a un sueño del que sólo despertamos al morir. Por tanto lo real es la muerte, y la vida es asociada a la irrealidad del sueño, de tal manera que se invierten los términos de nuestra percepción cotidiana: la vida es muerte y la muerte es vida. Ya en el siglo XX, el filósofo británico Alan Watts reflexiona en este vídeo sobre esa misma relación entre vida y sueño y muy probablemente estaría de acuerdo con esta maravillosa combinación de palabras de Calderón, escrita tres siglos antes: 'Sueña el rico en su riqueza que más cuidados le ofrece; sueña el pobre que padece su miseria y su pobreza; sueña el que a medrar empieza, sueña el que afana y pretende, sueña el que agravia y ofende y en el mundo, en conclusión, todos sueñan lo que son aunque ninguno lo entiende'.The conception of life as a dream is very old. There are references to this idea in so different times and cultures as the Hindu tradition, Persian mystique, Greek philosophy or Judeo-Christian morality. Parvati is the Hindu goddess of dreams, and also of births and everything related to the creation, suggesting that the Hindu tradition gives to dreams a creative ability and the power to produce something that did not previously exist in the material world. One of the most important works of Persian and Arabic culture is A thousand and one nights, in many of whose stories it comes the subject of dreams, shown as a set of mirrors in which reality is reflected and prevents us from seeing what we have around. The clearest example is the tale The sleeper and the waker, in which a king and a beggar swap roles and the second ends up believing everything has been a dream. The allegory of the cave is a narrative in which the Greek philosopher Plato explains his theory of the existence of two worlds —Sense and Ideas— and metaphorically describes the situation in which the human is related by them: life goes into a kind of reverie, ignorant and ruled by the senses, of which you can wake up only through the reason, to attain true knowledge. W_mitodelacaverna
‘Allegory of Plato's Cave’, Jan Saenredam, 1604
The Spanish writer Calderon de la Barca, in his work Life is a dream, poses a dichotomy between earthly life and the heavenly life in which the first is similar to a dream that will finish only at death. Therefore, the real is death and life is associated with the unreality of the dream, so that the terms of our everyday perception are reversed: life is death and death is life. Already in the twentieth century, British philosopher Alan Watts reflects on this video about the same relationship between sleep and life and most likely would agree with the wonderful words of Calderon, written three centuries earlier: 'And the rich man dreams of gold, gilding cares it scarce conceals; and the poor man dreams he feels want and misery and cold; dreams he too who rank would hold, dreams who bears toil's rough-ribbed hands, dreams who wrong for wrong demands and in fine, throughout the Earth, all men dream whatever their birth, and yet no one understands'." ["post_title"]=> string(68) "La vida es sueñoLife is a dream" ["post_excerpt"]=> string(0) "" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["comment_status"]=> string(4) "open" ["ping_status"]=> string(4) "open" ["post_password"]=> string(0) "" ["post_name"]=> string(15) "life-is-a-dream" ["to_ping"]=> string(0) "" ["pinged"]=> string(0) "" ["post_modified"]=> string(19) "2021-06-13 13:25:48" ["post_modified_gmt"]=> string(19) "2021-06-13 11:25:48" ["post_content_filtered"]=> string(0) "" ["post_parent"]=> int(0) ["guid"]=> string(29) "http://whatonline.org/?p=5248" ["menu_order"]=> int(0) ["post_type"]=> string(4) "post" ["post_mime_type"]=> string(0) "" ["comment_count"]=> string(1) "0" ["filter"]=> string(3) "raw" } [1]=> object(WP_Post)#1723 (24) { ["ID"]=> int(5842) ["post_author"]=> string(4) "2049" ["post_date"]=> string(19) "2014-04-14 00:01:33" ["post_date_gmt"]=> string(19) "2014-04-13 22:01:33" ["post_content"]=> string(3851) "El escritor, ensayista, profesor, filósofo, biólogo y genetista francés Albert Jacquard comparte en esta entrevista unas interesantes y reveladoras reflexiones sobre el trabajo. Nacido en el seno de una familia católica conservadora, hijo del director del Banco de Francia Francois Jacquard y de Marie-Louise Fourgeot, en 1934 el automóvil en el que viaja sufre un accidente en el que fallecen su hermano menor y sus abuelos paternos, y él queda desfigurado. En 1943 obtiene los bachilleratos en matemática y filosofía, y en 1948 se gradúa en ingeniería de fábricas públicas en la Escuela Politécnica Francesa y se integra en el Instituto Francés de Estadística. En 1951 se incorpora al monopolio SEITA como ingeniero de organización y de método y más tarde trabaja como investigador en el Tribunal de Cuentas francés y como alto ejecutivo en el ministerio de salud. En 1966 se traslada a Estados Unidos para estudiar genética de población en la Universidad de Stanford y regresa a Francia para incorporarse al instituto francés para estudios demográficos, como responsable del departamento de genética. En 1973 es nombrado experto en genética por la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS), el organismo de la Organización de las Naciones Unidas (ONU) especializado en gestionar políticas de prevención, promoción e intervención en salud a nivel mundial. En 1973 comienza a dar clases en la Universidad de Ginebra, Suiza (1973—1976) y tiempo después en la Universidad Pierre y Marie Curie de París (1978—1990) y en la Universidad Católica de Lovaina, Bélgica (1979—1981). Su obra le valió el reconocimiento nacional, siendo nombrado Oficial de la Legión de Honor y Comandante de la Orden Nacional del Mérito (1980), además de recibir el Premio de Ciencia de la Fundación Francia el mismo año. Entre sus obras destacan 'Yo acuso a la economía triunfante' (1996), 'Pequeña filosofía para no filósofos' (1997) y 'Mi utopía' (2006).The French writer, essayist, teacher, philosopher, biologist and geneticist Albert Jacquard shares on this interview some interesting and revealing reflections on work. Born into a conservative Catholic family, son of the director of the Bank of France Francois Jacquard and Marie-Louise Fourgeot, in 1934 he suffers a car accident in which his younger brother and his paternal grandparents die, and he is disfigured. In 1943 obtained the bachelor in mathematics and philosophy, and in 1948 he graduated in public factories engineering in the French Polytechnique School and becomes part of the French Institute of Statistics. In 1951 is incorporated to the monopoly Seita as an engineer on organization and method and later worked as a researcher at the French Court of Auditors and as a senior executive in the health ministry. In 1966 he moved to the United States to study population genetics at Stanford University and returned to France to join the French Institute for Demographic Studies, as head of the department of genetics. In 1973 he was appointed geneticist by the World Health Organization (WHO), the agency of the United Nations (UN) specialized in managing policies for prevention, promotion and intervention in health worldwide. In 1973 he began teaching at the University of Geneva, Switzerland (1973—1976) and then at the Pierre and Marie Curie University in Paris (1978—1990) and at the Catholic University of Leuven, Belgium (1979—1981). His work earned him national recognition, being named Officer of the Legion of Honor and Commander of the National Order of Merit (1980), and received the Science Award of the Foundation France the same year. His works include 'I accuse the triumphant economy' (1996), 'Small philosophy for non philosophers' (1997) and 'My utopia' (2006)." ["post_title"]=> string(83) "Reflexiones sobre el trabajoReflections on work" ["post_excerpt"]=> string(0) "" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["comment_status"]=> string(6) "closed" ["ping_status"]=> string(6) "closed" ["post_password"]=> string(0) "" ["post_name"]=> string(19) "reflections-on-work" ["to_ping"]=> string(0) "" ["pinged"]=> string(0) "" ["post_modified"]=> string(19) "2020-02-19 00:11:41" ["post_modified_gmt"]=> string(19) "2020-02-18 23:11:41" ["post_content_filtered"]=> string(0) "" ["post_parent"]=> int(0) ["guid"]=> string(29) "http://whatonline.org/?p=5842" ["menu_order"]=> int(0) ["post_type"]=> string(4) "post" ["post_mime_type"]=> string(0) "" ["comment_count"]=> string(1) "0" ["filter"]=> string(3) "raw" } [2]=> object(WP_Post)#1730 (24) { ["ID"]=> int(3987) ["post_author"]=> string(4) "2049" ["post_date"]=> string(19) "2013-02-11 00:02:02" ["post_date_gmt"]=> string(19) "2013-02-10 23:02:02" ["post_content"]=> string(2541) "Thich Nhat Hanh es un maestro zen vietnamita, además de monje budista y activista por la paz. Fundador de la Escuela de la Juventud para los Servicios Sociales, la Universidad Budista de Vanh Hanh, la editorial Le Boi Press y la Orden del Interser, enseñó en la Universidad de Columbia y en la Sorbona y fue nominado por Martin Luther King para el Premio Nobel de la Paz en 1967. Tuvo que exiliarse como refugiado político en Francia en 1972, debido al combate pacífico que emprendió durante la guerra de Vietnam. Actualmente vive en una comunidad de enseñanza budista llamada Plum Village fundada en 1982 cerca de Burdeos, aunque viaja constantemente por el mundo impartiendo enseñanzas y ayudando a los refugiados. Ha escrito más de 60 libros en inglés, francés y vietnamita, y algunos de ellos han sido traducidos al español. Sus textos y conferencias se centran principalmente en la necesidad de transmitir a la acción cotidiana y social una intención profunda de amor surgido de una atención consciente. En este vídeo, una asistente a una de sus conferencias le solicita consejo para los jóvenes que luchan por los derechos sociales en todo el mundo y especialmente en el contexto de la crisis que se está produciendo en Europa.Thich Nhat Hanh is a Vietnamese Zen master, besides Buddhist monk and peace activist. Founder of the School of Youth for Social Services, Vanh Hanh Buddhist University, publisher Le Boi Press and the Order of Interbeing, he taught at Columbia University and at the Sorbonne and was nominated by Martin Luther King for Nobel Peace Prize in 1967. He was exiled as a political refugee in France in 1972, due to the peaceful struggle that began during the Vietnam War. He currently lives in a buddhist teaching community called Plum Village founded in 1982 near Bordeaux, although constantly travels the world giving teachings and helping refugees. He has written more than 60 books in English, French and Vietnamese, and some of them have been translated into Spanish. His writings and lectures focus primarily on the need to transmit in the social daily action a profound intention of love emerged from conscious attention. In this video, an assistant to one of his lectures prompted advice to young people who fight for social rights throughout the world and especially in the context of the crisis that is occurring in Europe." ["post_title"]=> string(86) "El sistema somos nosotrosWe, we, we are the system" ["post_excerpt"]=> string(0) "" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["comment_status"]=> string(4) "open" ["ping_status"]=> string(4) "open" ["post_password"]=> string(0) "" ["post_name"]=> string(23) "we-we-we-are-the-system" ["to_ping"]=> string(0) "" ["pinged"]=> string(0) "" ["post_modified"]=> string(19) "2014-07-13 14:06:18" ["post_modified_gmt"]=> string(19) "2014-07-13 12:06:18" ["post_content_filtered"]=> string(0) "" ["post_parent"]=> int(0) ["guid"]=> string(29) "http://whatonline.org/?p=3987" ["menu_order"]=> int(0) ["post_type"]=> string(4) "post" ["post_mime_type"]=> string(0) "" ["comment_count"]=> string(1) "0" ["filter"]=> string(3) "raw" } [3]=> object(WP_Post)#1882 (24) { ["ID"]=> int(3416) ["post_author"]=> string(4) "2049" ["post_date"]=> string(19) "2012-11-12 00:01:00" ["post_date_gmt"]=> string(19) "2012-11-11 23:01:00" ["post_content"]=> string(2213) "'La felicidad siempre vendrá de la conexión entre seres humanos'. Después de ejercer como profesor de primaria durante 38 años en diferentes escuelas, se retiró en marzo de 2007 y actualmente es profesor del Departamento de Educación Infantil en la Universidad de Hokuriku Gakuin, en Japón. A través de su idea de educación 'Empatiza con tus amigos para ser feliz', Kanamori investiga, desde los años 80, diferentes vías para trabajar directamente con las personas y la naturaleza. En el documental 'Pensando en los demás' (Children Full of Life), producido por la NHK (Televisión Nacional de Japón) se muestra lo que sucedió en una de sus clases a lo largo de todo un curso. Este documental obtuvo un gran éxito que se tradujo en la obtención de varios premios y una gran difusión y repercusión mundial. Su trabajo ha conseguido llamar la atención de la comunidad educativa, pero también ha logrado el reconocimiento de otros sectores que pueden parecer más alejados, como el de la salud.'Happiness always comes from the connection between human beings'. After practicing as a primary school teacher for 38 years at different schools, retired in March 2007 and is currently a professor in the Department of Early Childhood Education in Hokuriku Gakuin University, in Japan. Through his idea of education 'Empathize with your friends to be happy', Kanamori investigates, from the 80s, different ways to work directly with people and nature. In the documentary 'Children Full of Life', produced by NHK (Japan National Television) shows what happened in one of his classes throughout a course. This film was a great success which resulted in obtaining several awards and a high circulation and global impact. His work has gotten the attention of the education community, but has also achieved recognition from other sectors that may seem further away, such as health." 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