04/03/2013

Freedom and responsibility

Viktor Frankl was an Austrian neurologist and psychiatrist. He survived from 1942 to 1945 in several Nazi concentration camps, including Auschwitz and Dachau, and from that experience he wrote the book ‘Man’s search for meaning’, which describes the life of the prisoner of a concentration camp from the perspective of a psychiatrist and explains that, even in the most extreme conditions of dehumanization and suffering, man can find a reason to live based on their spiritual dimension.

This reflection served to confirm and finalize the development of speech therapy, psychotherapy that proposes that the will to meaning is the primary motivation of human beings and that is considered the third Viennese school of psychology after Freud’s psychoanalysis and individual psychology of Adler.

Being very young, Frankl had maintained correspondence with Freud, who published some of his writings, but soon abandoned the psychoanalytic school and oriented towards the individual psychology of Adler, who also end up abandoning because of doctrinal differences.

He published more than 30 books, translated into many languages​​, taught courses and lectured around the world and received 29 honorary doctorates from several universities, including one from Universidad Francisco Marroquín in Guatemala, an institution that also honored him with the psychology clinic that bears his name.

In this interview he explains his views on the relations between concepts like freedom, circumstances, responsibility or attitude.

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array(2) { [0]=> int(899) [1]=> int(1) }
array(4) { [0]=> object(WP_Post)#1722 (24) { ["ID"]=> int(296) ["post_author"]=> string(4) "2046" ["post_date"]=> string(19) "2012-05-18 00:16:56" ["post_date_gmt"]=> string(19) "2012-05-17 22:16:56" ["post_content"]=> string(4605) "El poder de la sonrisa es tan grande que el solo hecho de esbozarla ya produce efectos beneficiosos. Richard Wiseman, catedrático de Comprensión Pública de la Psicología en la Universidad de Hertfordshire, en Reino Unido, nos recuerda en una entrevista concedida a Eduard Punset que 'cuando te obligas a sonreír, eso te anima, te hace sentir más feliz. Eso sí, hay que mantener la sonrisa en la cara durante unos 15 segundos, mantenerla ahí'. Un sencillo ejercicio: párate, respira suavemente y dirige la atención hacia tu cara. Comienza por la frente, date cuenta de las sensaciones que vienen de ella, nota si hay alguna tensión y relájala. Párate especialmente en las mandíbulas y la lengua, porque es muy común que las mantengamos contraídas y en tensión. Respira y suéltalas. Relaja la boca. Coloca suavemente y sin forzar la punta de la lengua sobre la encía superior, por detrás de tus dientes delanteros. Verás cómo se relajan automáticamente los labios y se esboza una suave sonrisa. La cara es una de las partes más sensibles de nuestro cuerpo. Hay en ella un conjunto de elementos muy diferentes entre sí que configuran nuestra tarjeta de presentación: ojos, boca, frente, cejas, mejillas, mentón... En algunas de estas partes —mandíbula y frente son puntos neurálgicos— se concentran muchas de nuestras tensiones habituales, sobre todo miedo y rabia. Por eso es importante darse cuenta de cómo tenemos la cara, saber qué dice de nosotros y tomar conciencia de ello, relajar sus músculos y comenzar así a cambiar nuestra actitud. Muchas personas de diferentes épocas y culturas se han referido a la extraordinaria singularidad de la sonrisa y a su capacidad para el tránsito del yo al tú. Según María Jesús Ribas 'la sonrisa no es simplemente la manifestación de un sentimiento interno de alegría, sintonía o bienestar; es una forma de expresión exclusiva de los seres humanos, y es también la parte más visible de una unión íntima entre dos mentes'. El Dalai Lama considera 'una sonrisa como algo único en un ser humano. Una sonrisa es también una poderosa comunicación. Una sonrisa sincera es la expresión perfecta del amor y la compasión humanas'. La Madre Teresa de Calcuta estaba convencida de que 'la paz empieza con una sonrisa', y el escritor ruso Leo Tolstoy llegó a asegurar que 'el niño reconoce a su madre por la sonrisa'.The power of smile is so big that only the fact of slightly doing it already produces beneficial effects. Richard Wiseman, a Public Understanding of Psychology professor in the University of Hertfordshire, in UK, remembers us in an interview with Eduard Punset that 'when you force yourself to smile, it encourages you, it makes you feel happier. This said, you have to keep your smile for 15 seconds, keep it there'. A simple exercise: stop, breathe gently and focus your attention on your face. Start with your forehead; be aware of the feelings that come from it, if there is any type of strain, relax it. Pay special attention to your jaws and tongue, because we tend to keep them strained. Breathe and relax them. Relax your mouth. Gently, put the tip of your tongue on your upper gum, behind your front teeth. You will see how you lips are immediately relaxed and you gently smile. Your face is one of the most sensible parts of your body. A set of various elements, each of them unique, forms your presentation card: eyes, mouth, forehead, eyebrows, cheeks... Fear and rage, some of our most common tensions, tend to gather around some of these parts —your jaw and forehead are neuralgic points—. This is the reason why it is important to know how your face is, what it says about one y be aware of it, relax our muscles and start to change our attitude. Many people from different times and cultures have referred to the smile’s extraordinary singularity and its ability to make the transition between one’s self to others. In words of María Jesús Ribas, 'the smile it’s not only the display of an inner feeling of joy, harmony or welfare; it is an exclusive form of expression for human beings and it is as well the most visible part of an intimate union between two minds'. The Dalai Lama considers 'a smile as something unique in a human being. A smile is also a powerful communication tool. A sincere smile is the perfect expression for human love and compassion'. Mother Theresa of Calcuta was convinced that 'peace starts with a smile' and Russian writer Leon Tólstoi even said 'a kid recognizes his mother by a smile'." ["post_title"]=> string(90) "El poder de una buena sonrisaThe power of a good smile" ["post_excerpt"]=> string(0) "" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["comment_status"]=> string(4) "open" ["ping_status"]=> string(4) "open" ["post_password"]=> string(0) "" ["post_name"]=> string(25) "the-power-of-a-good-smile" ["to_ping"]=> string(0) "" ["pinged"]=> string(0) "" ["post_modified"]=> string(19) "2020-03-04 02:18:11" ["post_modified_gmt"]=> string(19) "2020-03-04 01:18:11" ["post_content_filtered"]=> string(0) "" ["post_parent"]=> int(0) ["guid"]=> string(28) "http://whatonline.org/?p=296" ["menu_order"]=> int(0) ["post_type"]=> string(4) "post" ["post_mime_type"]=> string(0) "" ["comment_count"]=> string(1) "0" ["filter"]=> string(3) "raw" } [1]=> object(WP_Post)#1719 (24) { ["ID"]=> int(2230) ["post_author"]=> string(4) "2049" ["post_date"]=> string(19) "2012-09-03 00:01:46" ["post_date_gmt"]=> string(19) "2012-09-02 22:01:46" ["post_content"]=> string(725) "Un experimento realizado a mediados del año 2011 por la organización Acción contra el Hambre mostró que el instinto de compartir está en la naturaleza humana. Mientras tanto, en un mundo que tiene capacidad para alimentar al doble de su población, 55 millones de niños sufren desnutrición aguda y 3,5 millones mueren de hambre cada año.An experiment conducted in 2011 by the Spanish organization Acción contra el Hambre (Action Against Hunger) showed that the instinct to share is in human nature. Meanwhile, in a world that has the capacity to feed twice its population, 55 million children suffer acute malnutrition and 3,5 million die of hunger every year. " ["post_title"]=> string(74) "Compartir humanum estTo share is human" ["post_excerpt"]=> string(0) "" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["comment_status"]=> string(4) "open" ["ping_status"]=> string(4) "open" ["post_password"]=> string(0) "" ["post_name"]=> string(21) "compartir-humanum-est" ["to_ping"]=> string(0) "" ["pinged"]=> string(0) "" ["post_modified"]=> string(19) "2014-07-13 14:29:20" ["post_modified_gmt"]=> string(19) "2014-07-13 12:29:20" ["post_content_filtered"]=> string(0) "" ["post_parent"]=> int(0) ["guid"]=> string(29) "http://whatonline.org/?p=2230" ["menu_order"]=> int(0) ["post_type"]=> string(4) "post" ["post_mime_type"]=> string(0) "" ["comment_count"]=> string(1) "0" ["filter"]=> string(3) "raw" } [2]=> object(WP_Post)#1724 (24) { ["ID"]=> int(2777) ["post_author"]=> string(4) "2049" ["post_date"]=> string(19) "2012-07-02 00:05:25" ["post_date_gmt"]=> string(19) "2012-07-01 22:05:25" ["post_content"]=> string(3240) "Carl Gustav Jung fue un médico psiquiatra, psicólogo y ensayista suizo, y una figura clave en la etapa inicial del psicoanálisis. Fundó la escuela de psicología analítica, también llamada psicología de los complejos y psicología profunda. Relacionado a menudo con Sigmund Freud, de quien fuera colaborador en sus comienzos, fue un pionero de la psicología profunda y uno de los estudiosos de esta disciplina más ampliamente leídos durante el siglo XX. Su obra es prolífica y durante la mayor parte de su vida centró su trabajo en la formulación de teorías psicológicas y en la práctica clínica, aunque también hizo incursiones en otros campos de las humanidades, desde el estudio comparativo de las religiones, la filosofía y la sociología hasta la crítica del arte y la literatura. W_freud
En sus comienzos, Jung colaboró con Freud —Imagen Unknown Author
El abordaje teórico y clínico de Jung enfatizó la conexión funcional entre la estructura de la psique y la de sus productos, es decir, sus manifestaciones culturales. Esto le impulsó a incorporar a su metodología nociones procedentes de la antropología, la alquimia, los sueños, el arte, la mitología, la religión y la filosofía. En este vídeo nos habla sobre el poder del constante proceso de retroalimentación entre el mundo interior de cada uno y el exterior, entre lo imaginario y lo tangible, entre la fantasía y la realidad.Carl Gustav Jung was a Swiss medical psychiatrist, psychologist and essayist, and a key figure in the beginnings of psychoanalysis. He founded the school of analytical psychology, also called psychology of the complexes and depth psychology. Often associated with Sigmund Freud, with whom he initially collaborated, he was a pioneer of depth psychology and one of the experts of this widely studied twentieth century discipline. His work is prolific and for most of his life he focused his work on the development of psychological theories and clinical practice. He also made forays into other fields of the humanities, from the comparative study of religions, philosophy and sociology to art criticism and literature. W_freud
In his beginnings, Jung collaborated with Freud —Image Unknown Author
Jung’s theoretical and clinical approach stressed the functional connection between the structure of the psyche and its products: its cultural manifestations. This prompted him to incorporate into his methodology ideas from anthropology, alchemy, dreams, art, mythology, religion and philosophy. In this video he talks about the power of constant feedback process between one’s inner world and the outside, between the imaginary and the tangible, between fantasy and reality." ["post_title"]=> string(107) "El mundo interior también es el mundoThe inner world is also the world" ["post_excerpt"]=> string(0) "" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["comment_status"]=> string(4) "open" ["ping_status"]=> string(4) "open" ["post_password"]=> string(0) "" ["post_name"]=> string(33) "the-inner-world-is-also-the-world" ["to_ping"]=> string(0) "" ["pinged"]=> string(0) "" ["post_modified"]=> string(19) "2021-05-07 20:09:22" ["post_modified_gmt"]=> string(19) "2021-05-07 18:09:22" ["post_content_filtered"]=> string(0) "" ["post_parent"]=> int(0) ["guid"]=> string(29) "http://whatonline.org/?p=2777" ["menu_order"]=> int(0) ["post_type"]=> string(4) "post" ["post_mime_type"]=> string(0) "" ["comment_count"]=> string(1) "0" ["filter"]=> string(3) "raw" } [3]=> object(WP_Post)#1854 (24) { ["ID"]=> int(5883) ["post_author"]=> string(4) "2049" ["post_date"]=> string(19) "2014-06-02 00:01:41" ["post_date_gmt"]=> string(19) "2014-06-01 22:01:41" ["post_content"]=> string(1417) "Reproducción, amor, deseo, prostitución, hormonas, afecto, monogamia, placer, poliandria y sexo, entre otros asuntos, se dan cita en este documental presentado por el zoólogo y etólogo Desmond Morris. Producido por Discovery Channel en 1997, forma parte de la serie Cuestión de sexos, en la que se abordan las diferencias entre hombres y mujeres y se investiga cómo han cambiado sus roles desde los tiempos primitivos. En este capítulo, Los patrones del amor, el autor investiga rituales y creencias de lugares tan dispares como Japón, Egipto, Camerún, Estados Unidos, Estonia, India o Turquía y a la vez se pregunta sobre la libertad de nuestras elecciones sentimentales o amorosas.Reproduction, love, desire, prostitution, hormones, affection, monogamy, pleasure, polyandry and sex, among other matters, meet in this documentary film presented by zoologist and ethologist Desmond Morris. Produced by Discovery Channel in 1997, is part of the The human sexes series, in which the differences between men and women and how their roles have changed since primitive times are addressed and investigated. In this chapter, Patterns of love, the author investigates rituals and beliefs in places as diverse as Japan, Egypt, Cameroon, United States, Estonia, India or Turkey while question the freedom of our sentimental or loving choices." ["post_title"]=> string(69) "El amor y los sexosLove and sexes" ["post_excerpt"]=> string(0) "" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["comment_status"]=> string(6) "closed" ["ping_status"]=> string(6) "closed" ["post_password"]=> string(0) "" ["post_name"]=> string(14) "love-and-sexes" ["to_ping"]=> string(0) "" ["pinged"]=> string(0) "" ["post_modified"]=> string(19) "2021-06-13 13:33:54" ["post_modified_gmt"]=> string(19) "2021-06-13 11:33:54" ["post_content_filtered"]=> string(0) "" ["post_parent"]=> int(0) ["guid"]=> string(29) "http://whatonline.org/?p=5883" ["menu_order"]=> int(0) ["post_type"]=> string(4) "post" ["post_mime_type"]=> string(0) "" ["comment_count"]=> string(1) "0" ["filter"]=> string(3) "raw" } }