16/06/2019

On dynamics of History

The History, its changes and evolution of societies is marked by a tension between conservation and change, according S. Aguilar. The evolution of a being or a society is the change that happens in one concrete state to a different and new concrete state. The change is the result of the tension between the forces that want to preserve what exists and the forces that want to change what exists.

Typically, conservation forces are represented by the power, by dominators, the establishment, by the standard, and the few that concentrate. Also, the forces of change usually come represented and represent the majority, the demos —those who work with their hands, the people—, those who want the power structure that favors them, those who do not conform, those who want more, or what is really here. Scientifically, the above is not correct or orthodox, because really these two inertias that make up this dynamic between conservation and change, no have face or identity, are two social processes.

Let’s stop here. Sometimes, after a moment of change and social advancement or increased rights for most, this state of conquest, becomes the primordial state, the being of things,the reality of the world at that particular time. The last period has been like that, what has been called ‘the golden age of capitalism’ (E. Hobsbawm), where after the comprehensive Welfare State, endowed with rights and greater welfare for the vast majority —leaving aside criticism that can be made to the welfare state itself—, and even in a few moments and usually very brief history there have been social justice for the majority, the forces of change have been at that time which typically represent the conservation, in an attempt to return to what it was, but even conservative forces of change.

The last episode of this kind began in the 70s, where from different processes, the forces of change were at this conservative moment, wanting to go back, depriving the working class, the majority, which had conquered the ancient forces of change. the visible faces of this process were as you know, Thatcher in Britain and Reagan in the United States. That change process started there —also with its own History— and today we continue in this particular inertia within the History.

W_tatcheryreagan
Margaret Thatcher and Ronald Reagan, a relationship that changed History — Image AP

Before that, we lived in a world of big thinkers alive today (A. Domènech and others) have defined as a post-fascist world where after the horror of European fascism —sadly lasted more in Spain— and two large wars and before the crack of 29, was the inertia for change and this time in favor of the majority. Declaration of Human Rights (1948) was created, after the Welfare state, with a logic of rights and greater well-being and freedom for all, where there was a controlled capitalism, regulated, more unionism, organization and class consciousness. The market was regulated and the notion of human brotherhood and community were an increasingly questionable value, by the power and by the people. A time when economic policy for example U.S. in the 50s, with Eisenhower —not wanting in any case idealize political policy mentioned—, the highest incomes of $400,000 had a tax rate of 91%, yes, yes redistribution of 91% of the federation of states, incredible today, there was a time, the world at least economically, it worked well. Interestingly, data like this surprise us today, and only happened 60 years ago and it seems to be a world that never existed. But back came the forces of change, this time to dispossess us, to privatize, to accumulate and capitalism ‘gold’ was becoming fierce, cannibalistic capitalism.

Today we live within that inertia. The tension never ceases, but clearly, now, the balance is in the hands of pulling the dynamics of History that most do not move forward and be slaves to capital and private and this time on a global level, breaking all the borders, the whole capitalist world or not is engulfed by this ‘runaway train’ —Hobsbawm again— that is contemporary Capitalism.

One could also say that the dynamics of history is a class struggle, said hated and loved Marx, but to put it in a less ‘controversy’ way, a struggle between oligarchy —power of the few and those who hold power and property and not depends on anyone else to live, or rather the work of many— and democracy —rule by many, all of which work with their hands—. The moments of triumph of democracy, the will of the people and benefiting the people, have been few and brief compared to the oligarchy that has dominated. Today we live in oligarchy degenerate to a true plutocracy —Ancient Greek, ploutos ‘wealth’ and kratos ‘government’— the power has the power itself, in an inertia of accumulation by dispossession (D. Harvey), financial power controls, politics obeys and society suffers.

The dynamics of History is a constant class struggle, according to Karl Marx — Image Unknown Author

But there is a crucial difference between the other times and now. Today individuals from what are called advanced societies and those that are not, we are, or we can be and despite the redundancy, very advanced level of ideas, we have a lot of knowledge, and we are aware or ought to have of all this —come of what has been called the knowledge society—, or at least have a past to which we can turn to remember and learn. We have taken something that had been ours, it was not discussed, it was agreed and signed the Declaration of Human Rights, which is the best or not (not go to rating) is what we have for the moment, and starting with the first article and the more encompassing ‘all persons have the right to be born free and equal’, even in societies where there are no cultural resistance to understand it as true, and every last one of them, not assume and are vilified by this dirty, obese and corrupt system of power.

The tension is served, the process of open exchange, the result depends on who pull more and stronger rope that tightens the dynamic between conservation and change, but we can’t forget, we are more and in the end out our existence that is at stake. Have recourse to history, it offers a lot to learn.

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array(4) { [0]=> object(WP_Post)#1647 (24) { ["ID"]=> int(3684) ["post_author"]=> string(4) "2049" ["post_date"]=> string(19) "2012-12-31 00:01:13" ["post_date_gmt"]=> string(19) "2012-12-30 23:01:13" ["post_content"]=> string(2045) "A partir de la evolución de las nuevas tecnologías y del pensamiento contemporáneo, el futuro se presenta plagado de retos muy diversos. En el ámbito laboral, por ejemplo, es un futuro en el que deben convivir sistemas abiertos como Linux con egos y patentes en feroz competencia. En este capítulo del programa 'Soy cámara' del CCCB Centro de Cultura Contemporánea de Barcelona, titulado 'Pensar el futuro', se analizan las posibles causas y consecuencias de este panorama, como la pérdida del espíritu artesanal o fenómenos tan dramáticos como la serie de suicidios de la multinacional France Télécom, donde 30 empleados se quitaron la vida en menos de dos años. 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The program includes excerpts of interviews and conferences of Francisco Jarauta, Tzvetan Todorov, Richard Sennett and Sidi Mohammed Barkat, thinkers and philosophers to explore the topic in a pedagogical manner, creative and responsible, but also irreverent, humorous and critical." 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Este documental, producido por History Channel en 2012, cuenta 14 mil millones de años de historia a través de un viaje rápido de 120 minutos, desde el principio del tiempo hasta la actualidad, haciendo escala para explorar los puntos de inflexión, los momentos históricos y las extraordinarias conexiones entre el pasado lejano y nuestra vida cotidiana.A new way to see the history of the Universe, Planet Earth and Humanity: the emergence of life, human progress and the appearance of civilization. This documentary, produced by History Channel in 2012, explains 14 billion years of history through a quick tour of 120 minutes from the beginning of time to the present, stopping to explore the turning points, the historical moments and the extraordinary connections between the distant past and our daily lives." 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Licenciado en administración y dirección de empresas y MBA por ESADE, donde además ha sido profesor de 'Vieja creatividad para la nueva economía', actualmente imparte conferencias y cursos de Branded Content en el máster en comunicación y publicidad de la Escuela Superior de Diseño Elisava, adscrita a la Universitat Pompeu Fabra. En su amplia trayectoria dentro del mundo de la publicidad y la comunicación, trabajó como redactor y director creativo en algunas de las agencias más reconocidas de España, como Bassat Ogilvy & Mather, Saatchi & Saatchi, Euro RSCG o SCPF. Desde 2006 ha sido un rostro habitual en televisión, alcanzando gran popularidad gracias a 'Operación triunfo' en Telecinco. En radio ha sido tertuliano de Luis del Olmo en 'Protagonistas' y colaborador semanal de Julia Otero en Onda Cero, y en prensa columnista del diario ADN. Su primer libro, 'El pensamiento negativo', entró en la lista de los 10 libros de no ficción más vendidos en 2008 y llegó a las 15 ediciones; el segundo, 'El sentimiento negativo' (2009) va por la quinta, igual que su primera novela, 'Que la muerte te acompañe' (2011). Es socio fundador y director creativo ejecutivo de la agencia Aftershare.tv y de 60dB, productora de televisión asociada al Grupo Mediaset.'In the future the emotion will be the medium, and hopefully that will bring a more human world'. Bachelor of Business Administration and Management and MBA from ESADE, where he has been professor of 'Old creativity to the new economy', currently gives lectures and courses in the master Branded Content in communication and advertising Elisava School of Design, attached to the Universitat Pompeu Fabra. In his long career in the world of advertising and communications, worked as a copywriter and creative director at some of the most recognized agencies in Spain, as Bassat Ogilvy & Mather, Saatchi & Saatchi, Euro RSCG or SCPF. Since 2006 he has been a regular face on television, reaching great popularity thanks to 'Operation Triumph' in Telecinco. In radio was commentator with Luis del Olmo in 'Protagonistas' and Julia Otero weekly contributor on Onda Cero, and newspaper columnist for ADN. His first book, 'The negative thinking', went into the top 10 nonfiction best sellers in 2008 and reached the 15 editions. The second book, 'Negative sentiment' (2009) is on the fifth, as his first novel, 'Let death be with you' (2011). Founding partner and executive creative director of the agency Aftershare.tv and of 60dB, television producer associated with Mediaset Group." ["post_title"]=> string(112) "WHAT ABOUT: El futuro por Risto MejideWHAT ABOUT: The future by Risto Mejide" ["post_excerpt"]=> string(0) "" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["comment_status"]=> string(4) "open" ["ping_status"]=> string(4) "open" ["post_password"]=> string(0) "" ["post_name"]=> string(37) "what-about-the-future-by-risto-mejide" ["to_ping"]=> string(0) "" ["pinged"]=> string(0) "" ["post_modified"]=> string(19) "2021-05-05 17:57:08" ["post_modified_gmt"]=> string(19) "2021-05-05 15:57:08" ["post_content_filtered"]=> string(0) "" ["post_parent"]=> int(0) ["guid"]=> string(29) "http://whatonline.org/?p=3131" ["menu_order"]=> int(0) ["post_type"]=> string(4) "post" ["post_mime_type"]=> string(0) "" ["comment_count"]=> string(1) "1" ["filter"]=> string(3) "raw" } [3]=> object(WP_Post)#1820 (24) { ["ID"]=> int(8384) ["post_author"]=> string(4) "2055" ["post_date"]=> string(19) "2020-06-02 05:36:25" ["post_date_gmt"]=> string(19) "2020-06-02 03:36:25" ["post_content"]=> string(26317) "Una noche de finales del siglo XX, un conocido programa de televisión británico anunció que se terminaba el siglo que había visto los mayores cambios de la historia, mientras se proyectaban imágenes de avances tecnológicos de todo tipo, desde modernos aviones hasta nucleares hongos. Al historiador Ian Mortimer no le extrañó demasiado la relación entre cambio y tecnología, aunque sí una afirmación tan tajante. Tanto le extrañó que dedicó dos años a repasar los diez últimos siglos de la civilización occidental, extrayendo de cada uno los principales sucesos que fueron moldeándola y concluyendo que efectivamente, el siglo XX trajo grandes cambios, pero el resto de siglos tampoco son mancos. Incluyendo el XXI, que ya empezó apuntando alto. XI: Castillos y reinos A partir del año 1000, los castillos modificaron radicalmente el panorama feudal. Un lugar seguro, en el que guarecerse de los ataques enemigos, reforzó el vínculo entre un señor y sus tierras, porque incluso si se veía obligado a retirarse de una batalla podía volver para reclamarlas, siempre que hubiese mantenido el control de sus fortalezas. Así, los señores fueron asentándose en sus posesiones y fidelizando a sus vasallos para defenderlas, lo que condujo a una mayor estabilidad que les permitió empezar a pensar en sí mismos como gobernantes de un territorio más cercano a un reino o un país que a una tribu o un pueblo. W_castillo
Algunos castillos son tan fuertes que han resistido hasta nuestros días, como el de Loarre, construido en el siglo XI a la entrada de los Pirineos aragoneses y hoy una de las edificaciones románicas mejor conservadas de Europa — Image Unknown Author
XII: El control del conocimiento Mucho tiempo aunque no tanto después, el establecimiento de cientos de nuevos monasterios desencadenó una explosión en la difusión del conocimiento. Monjes que buscaban una mayor comprensión de Dios viajaron entre ellos, especialmente los de su misma orden, diseminando noticias y compartiendo obras teológicas e históricas que se almacenaban en sus bibliotecas tal y como hacen hoy en Internet. Las Cruzadas, la Inquisición y la implantación de un sistema parroquial —que aún perdura— aumentaron la influencia directa de la Iglesia sobre el pueblo y la poderosa idea del Purgatorio se extendió por todas las cabezas. W_elnombredelarosa
La famosa novela de Umberto Eco refleja muy bien la relación de la Iglesia medieval con el conocimiento mientras fray Guillermo de Baskerville y su pupilo Adso de Melk investigan los crímenes de una abadía — Imagen Jean-Jacques Annaud ('El nombre de la rosa', 1986)
XIII: Un abanico de variedad La aparición del mercado medieval supuso un gran cambio en la vida de las personas: de apañarse con lo que producían en casa pasaron a poder comprar cosas, además de acceder a artículos exóticos y hasta entonces impensables como telas, especias o tintes. El trueque fue el protagonista de las primeras transacciones, pero conforme avanzaron los mercados y ferias por Europa el dinero empezó a rivalizar con la propiedad de la tierra como fuente de poder, hasta convertirse prácticamente en la única forma de hacer negocios. W_mercadomedieval
Con el tiempo, los mercados y ferias medievales también sirvieron para compartir celebraciones y estrechar lazos — Imagen Pieter Brueghel el Joven ('Una feria de pueblo en honor de San Huberto y San Antonio', 1564)
XIV: La peste y la conciencia de clase En 1346 se pensaba que las enfermedades eran un castigo divino, pero la Peste Negra mató a más de un tercio de la población de Eurasia en los siguientes cinco años y la conmoción fue tal que el pueblo comenzó a replantearse su relación con el poder, incluyendo a un Dios que había permitido morir a recién nacidos que ni siquiera habían tenido tiempo de pecar. Eso reforzó la autoestima de la clase trabajadora, que comenzó a rebelarse contra sus patrones en levantamientos como la Grande Jacquerie en Francia en 1358 o la Rebelión de los Campesinos en Inglaterra en 1381.
Se cree que lo habitual eran cinco días entre el contagio y la muerte, aunque la leyenda dice que con la Peste Negra era posible estar sano por la mañana, tener fiebre por la tarde y morir por la noche entre terribles dolores y olores pestilentes provocados por los ganglios linfáticos inflamados — Imagen Unknown Author ('La plaga del siglo XIV', detalle del fresco 'La vida de San Sebastián', Capilla de San Sebastián, Lanslevillard, Francia, 1411)
XV: Ampliando horizontes Más allá de la tremenda importancia que tuvo añadir al mapamundi un continente nuevo del tamaño de América, la aventura de Colón y sus seguidores significó además un giro mental muy relevante. Desde el mar, los exploradores echaron por tierra el mito imperante de que los griegos y romanos ya sabían todo lo que valía la pena saber, y de paso obligaron a los investigadores a salir de su actitud autocomplaciente: si habían pasado por alto un continente entero, a saber qué más podían haber pasado por alto. W_mapamundiconamerica
En el planisferio 'Universalis Cosmographia' de 1507 aparece por primera vez América; con ella el mapa mundial sufrió una gran transformación, y las mentes también — Imagen Martin Waldseemüller
XVI: Lectura sagrada para todos Aunque la imprenta estaba inventada desde 1455, lo cierto es que al principio se imprimían pocos libros, normalmente en latín y tan caros que casi nadie podía pagarlos. Tuvo mucho mayor impacto la traducción de la Biblia a lenguas vernáculas, que se fue realizando a lo largo de todo el siglo. Un libro que la gente deseaba entender volcó a los europeos hacia la palabra escrita, la alfabetización creció y permitió valorar la palabra de Dios directamente, sin intermediarios. W_biblialutero1524
La Biblia en alemán de Lutero y las demás traducciones a diferentes lenguas contribuyeron en última instancia a mejorar el orden público, facilitar el cumplimiento y aplicación de la ley y reducir la tasa de crímenes a la mitad — Imagen David Shane
XVII: Y sin embargo se mueve Galileo fue condenado en 1633 por sostener que la Tierra se movía alrededor del Sol, y sin embargo se movía y los años siguientes se publicaron multitud de tratados sobre el tema y hasta se fundaron las primeras sociedades científicas: la Academia Naturae Curiosorum —más tarde la Leopoldina— en Baviera en 1652, la Royal Society en Londres en 1660 y la Académie des Sciences en París en 1666. El cambio fue más sociocultural que tecnológico, al pasar la autoridad en asuntos vitales de la Iglesia a la Ciencia, de Dios al Hombre. Si uno enfermaba gravemente en 1600 llamaba al sacerdote, pero en 1700 llamaba al médico. W_heliocentrismo
El modelo heliocéntrico ya fue propuesto en el siglo III AC por Aristarco de Samos, aunque el mundo siguió geocéntrico hasta la llegada del 'De revolutionibus orbium coelestium' de Copérnico, veinte siglos después — Imagen A&
XVIII: La revolución ilustrada Los principales pensadores de Europa abrazaron con fuerza la Ilustración y cuestionaron la legitimidad del poder para reprimir al pueblo. Montesquieu, Voltaire y Rousseau en particular —con la publicación de su obra 'El contrato social' en 1762— proclamaron que un Estado es injusto si trata indebidamente al individuo, y la Revolución Francesa se inspiró en gran medida en esas ideas. Surgió un nuevo concepto de libertad, se empezó a hablar de derechos humanos y se replanteó la relación entre individuo y Estado. W_lalibertadguiandoalpueblo
La Revolución Francesa marcó el inicio de la Edad Contemporánea al crear el concepto de soberanía popular y sentar las bases de la democracia moderna — Imagen Eugène Delacroix ('La libertad guiando al pueblo', 1830)
XIX: Comunicación y velocidad Un mensaje o un paquete del año 1830 tardaban en llegar a su destino, como mínimo, lo que tardaba un caballo en recorrer la distancia que los separaba. El tren y el barco a vapor resultaron claves para la especialización del comercio y la distribución masiva de productos básicos, con lo que las habituales hambrunas desaparecieron en occidente en tiempos de paz. Hacia 1870, el teléfono hizo posible que los mensajes tardaran en llegar a su destino lo que tarda un pulso eléctrico.
El ferrocarril permitió al mundo acercarse al resto del mundo — Imagen Enciclopedia Britannica
XX: La guerra se desborda Hasta la Primera Guerra Mundial, en las guerras únicamente morían soldados. La sociedad se espantó ante las cifras de muertes civiles y especialmente tras la creación de la bomba atómica en la Segunda Guerra Mundial, que supuso que la Humanidad, por primera vez, tenía la capacidad de destruir el planeta entero. Estados Unidos y la Unión Soviética se enzarzaron en la llamada Guerra Fría y se creó la Unión Europea para tratar de prevenir futuras contiendas. Tras el fracaso del Comunismo soviético en 1989, los valores occidentales capitalistas, que en 1900 se circunscribían a Europa, Norteamérica y Oceanía, se expandieron por todo el mundo. W_hiroshima
La bomba atómica Fat Man fue lanzada sobre la ciudad japonesa de Nagasaki en 1945 y puso fin a la Segunda Guerra Mundial — Imagen US National Archives
XXI: Pandemia universal En noviembre de 2019, un virus que pasó de los murciélagos a los humanos provocó una epidemia que afectó rápidamente a todos los países de un mundo globalizado, y tras varias oleadas y mutaciones los siete mil millones de habitantes de la Tierra se convirtieron en mil millones. Al principio el papel del Estado fue fundamental y muchos agoreros y algunos ilusos vaticinaron la vuelta del fracasado Comunismo, aunque con el tiempo los estados desaparecieron y de manera natural se adoptó como forma de gobierno el Universalismo, basado en una espontánea toma de conciencia, libre e individual, de que todo lo que existe es un sistema orgánico del que formamos parte y con el que más nos vale convivir en armonía. Es casi seguro que a Ian Mortimer le hubiera gustado estudiarlo. W_coronavirus2
Fotografía con microscopio electrónico de un grupo de coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, en la que se distingue claramente la corona de proteínas que los rodea y les da nombre — Imagen NIAID
One night at the end of the XXth century, a famous British TV program announced the end of the century including biggest changes ever, while images of all kind of technological advances were projected, from modern planes to nuclear mushrooms. The historian Ian Mortimer saw the connection between change and technology clearly, but not so clearly such a statement. He spent two years reviewing the last ten centuries of the Western civilization, highlightening from each one the key events and concluding that it is true that the XXth century includes a lot of big changes, but the rest of the centuries are no slouch. Including the XXIst, which started unruly. XI: Castles and kingdoms From the year 1000 the feudal scene was drastically modified by castles. A shelter to be safe from the enemy attacks strengthened the link between the lord and his lands, because even if a retirement in the battle camp was forced, he could come back and claim them —just in the case he was able to keep the control of the castles—. This is why the lords were setting in their possesions by fidelizing their vassals to defend them, fact that lead to greater stability that allowed them to begin to think of themselves as rulers of a territory closer to a kingdom or country than to a tribe or village. W_castillo
Some castles are so strong that have survived till now, as Loarre, built in the XIth century at the entrance of the Aragon Pirinees, which is today one of the best conserved Romanic buildings in Europe — Image Unknown Author
XII: The control of knowledge Later on, but not so later on, the settlement of hundred new monasteries triggered an explosion of the spread of knowledge. Monks seeking a wider comprehension of God travelled among them, specially among those of their same order, spreading news and sharing theological and historical papers and works which were stored in their libraries as currently is made in the Internet. The crusades, the Inquisition and the settlement of a parroquial system —that last till now— increased the direct influence of the Church over the people and the powerful idea of the Purgatory spread over every head. W_elnombredelarosa
Umberto Eco famous novel reflects very well the relationship of the medieval Church with knowledge, while fray William of Baskerville and his pupil Adso de Melk investigate the crimes of an abbey — Image Jean-Jacques Annaud ('The name of the rose', 1986).
XIII: A wide range of variety The appearance of the medieval market involved a huge change in the life of the people: from a subsistence and domestic consumption to the possibility of buying things, in addition of the access to exotics and till then unthinkable items such as fabrics, spices or dyes. The barter was the main character of the early transactions, but as the markets and fairs developed around Europe, money started to compete with land property as source of power until it became the only way to do business. W_mercadomedieval
Over time, medieval markets and fairs also served to share celebrations and strengthen ties — Image Pieter Brueghel the Younger ('A village fair in honor of Saint Hubert and Saint Anthony', 1564)
XIV: The Plague and class consciousness In 1346 it was thought illness was a divine punishment, but the Black Plague killed more than a third of the Eurasian population in the next five years, and the shock was so huge that people started to rethink their relationship with the power, including even a God that allowed newborns to die without time to sin. That strenghtened the self-esteem of the working class, that started to rebel against their employers in uprisings as the Grande Jacquerie in France in 1358, or the Rebellion of the Farmers in England in 1381.
It is believed that the usual thing was five days from contagion to death, but the legend says that with the Black Plague it was possible to be healhty in the morning, have fever in the afternoon and die in the night, between horrible pains and stinky odors made by the inflammation of the lynf nodes — Image Unknown Author ('The plague of the XIV century' details of the fresco 'The life of San Sebastian', San Sebastian chapel, Lanslevillard, France, 1411)
XV: Expanding horizons Beyond the tremendous importance of adding a new continent to the world map with the size of America, the adventure of Colon and his followers also brought along a very important intelectual turn. Explorers broke the prevailing myth in which Greeks and Romans knew all that was worth knowing, and in addition they forced the scholars to left their self-indulgent attitude: if they missed a whole continent, who knows what else could be missed. W_mapamundiconamerica
In the 1507 planisphere 'Universalis Cosmographia' America is first named; with it the world map suffered a great transformation, and also the minds — Image Martin Waldseemüller
XVI: Sacred reading for all Although the press had been invented in 1455, the truth is that in the beginning few books were printed, usually in Latin and they were so expensive that almost nobody could pay for them. The translation of the Bible to vernacular languages was the real hit and it took place along the whole century. A book people wanted to understand made Europeans want to read and write, fact that allowed a new kind of communication between God and the people: without intermediaries. W_biblialutero1524
The German Bible of Luther and the rest of translations in different languages helped to improve the fulfillment of law and order, which reduced the crime rate to half — Image David Shane
XVII: And yet it moves Galileo was condemned in 1633 for saying that Earth was moving around the Sun, nevertheless in fact it moves, and in the next years many papers about it were published, and the first scientific societies were founded: the Academia Naturae Curiosorum —after Leopoldina— in Baviera in 1652, the Royal Society in London in 1660 and the Academie des Sciences in Paris in 1666. The change was more sociocultural than technological, changing the authority of the vital matters from the Church to Science, from God to the Man. If you got very ill in 1600 you would call a priest, in 1700 a doctor. W_heliocentrismo
The heliocentric model was already proposed in the 3rd century BC by Aristarchus of Samos, although the world remained geocentric until the arrival of the 'De revolutionibus orbium coelestium' of Copernicus, twenty centuries later — Image A&
XVIII: The illustrate revolution The main European thinkers embraced Illustration strongly and questioned the legitimation of the power to repress people. Montesquieu, Voltaire and in particular Rousseau —with the publication of 'The social contract' in 1762— proclaimed that a State is unfair if treats individuals unproperly, and the French Revolution was mainly inspired by those ideas. A new concept of freedom arised, and they started to talk about human rights and the relationship between men and State was rethought. W_lalibertadguiandoalpueblo
The French Revolution marked the beginning of the Contemporary Age by creating the concept of popular sovereignty and laying the foundations of modern democracy — Image Eugène Delacroix ('Liberty leading the People', 1830)
XIX: Communication and speed A message or a parcel of the year 1830 took long to reach their destination, at least what it took a horse to cover the distance in between these two points. The train and the steam ship were key for the commerce development and spezialitation and for the massive distribution of basic products, something that made disappear the periods of famine in times of peace. Around 1870, telephone changed the speed of information, messages took just an electric pulse to arrive.
Train allowed to the world be closer to the rest of the world — Image Enciclopedia Britannica
XX: War overflows Until the First World War only soldiers were killed in war. Society was horrified with the number of civil deads, specially after the creation and released of the atomic bomb in the Second World War, that meant humanity had the capacity for the first time in their history, of destroying the whole planet. The USA and the URSS started the so called Cold War and the European Union was created in order to avoid new wars. After the failure of the Soviet communism in 1989 the capitalist occidental values, that in the 1900 were just along Europe, North America and Oceania, spread worldwide. W_hiroshima
The Fat Man atomic bomb was realeased over the Japanese city of Nagasaki in 1945 resulting in the end of the Second World War — Image US National Archives
XXI: Universal pandemic In November 2019, a virus that passed from bats to humans was the origin of a pandemic which affected quickly all countries in a globalized world, and afterwards several waves and mutations, the seven thousand million population of the Earth became a thousand million. At first, the role of State was essential and many omen and dreamers predicted the return of the failed Communism, although after some time states disappeared and in a natural way Universalism started to rule the world as a new kind of government, based in self-awareness that everything existing is an organic system we belong to, and we should better live in harmony. No doubt good old Ian Mortimer would like to look into it. W_coronavirus2
Picture made with electronic microscope of a bunch of coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, in which we can clearly see the surrounding crown of the proteins that give its name to the virus — Image NIAID
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