The right to a decent existence

The Universal Basic Income is a theory, in relation with economic policy. Although there are numerous precursors —Paine, Fourier, Van Parijs, More, Tobin— in Spain has been spread by Daniel Raventós and Red Basic Income, which amends some of the key structures of contemporary Capitalism as the property in broad meaning, work and freedom of individuals, softening the contemporary Capitalism and makes increasing balance and diminishing social inequality and injustice that we now live on a planetary level.

The Universal Basic Income or UBI as defined by the Basic Income Network ‘is a income paid by state, as a right of citizenship, each full member or resident of society income even if you do not want to work for pay, if you are rich or poor or, no matter what may be the other possible sources of income, and no matter who coexist. It is therefore universal and supersedes any other provision conditional’.

Universal Basic Income does not mind if you are poor or rich, in the same way as Social Security —Image Unknown Author

It is a fixed amount according to economic data for each country and situation, in the case of Spain, it could be around 500 euros —in exact terms, in 2007 was 451,6 euros, today is estimated at 664— for adults and one-fifth for those under 18. This amount is close to the minimum wage and basic conditions of existence and let every citizen above the poverty line, the basic reference for setting the amount.

Financing and regulation

The UBI can be financed in different ways, but the most accepted and defended by the Income Basic Network —Spain and other associated countries— and more redistributive value of wealth is done through a fiscal reform of income tax, setting a single rate of 57,5% for those above the UBI —any for below incomes—. Basic Income is also funded in this model, through cost savings for all administrative and bureaucratic apparatus requiring conditional grants. ‘With this tax reform, 70% of the population with less income would benefit from the reform, the richest 20% lose —their wealth be redistributed— and 10% in between these two sections, would be indifferent after the reform’, says Raventós.

If we divide the population rather than percentages by deciles, would lose wealth from the richest sixth decile of the population, makes sense and relates with the rawlsian concept of ‘fair inequalities’, which create positive inequity those who are worse off. So all were more equal —indivisibility of freedom and equality, in the philosophy of Kant, for example, are inseparable—.

Which are most benefited after the reform are undoubtedly those without any income. The wealth goes of the richest to the poorest, the opposite direction from today where capital accumulation is distributed through the plundering and dispossession —D. Harvey, ‘Accumulation by dispossession’—, is concentrated in some and escapes to the others.

Basic Income, of course, should be accompanied by some regulation in the legislation concerning the market and the labor market, once implanted. The UBI is necessary but not enough. The social preparation to understand and demand as its own the right to existence, and political viability that would make possible, are some of the key conditions for the its implantation and development.

The basic right

As Robespierre said during The French Revolution, the first right which emanate all others is the right to exist, in the current framework this fundamental right is a daily struggle, and in some cases a real obstacle.

During the French Revolution, Robespierre spread the idea that the first right from which everyone else emanates is the right to existence —’Liberty leading the people’, Eugène Delacroix, 1830

The guaranty of material existence, as a path to freedom and real equality of persons, is a concept has been studied and worked for many classic and contemporary philosophers in the republican tradition —Aristotle, Machiavelli, Cicero— but also many others. The idea that a citizen is not free if don’t have the freedom to not need to rely on another to live, even if it sometimes, is old and is full of philosophical foundations around the idea that if one can not depend on itself to live, if you need a third person you are not free, is not sui iuris —in Latin, ‘citizens of the rights itself’—, that is, you must ask permission to live. It is depends of other conditions, and in the current framework of the fluctuations and changes in the labor market and its conditions and not their real needs and choices.

Capacities and needs

Basic Income is based on the philosophical principle that says ‘to each according to his abilities, to each according to his needs’ —Saint Simon, Fourier, Bakunin—, freedom and equality as a philosophical umbrella for a just society of free and equal citizens. Try to solve the philosophical problem about individual freedom, which from the classical has concerned many thinkers. In its contemporary formulation, Philippe Van Parijs, theoretical reformulator including the current Basic Income and author of ‘Real freedom for all’, a truly free society is one that satisfies the following three conditions in this order of priority: 1— Security: there is a structure of rights and well articulated basic freedoms; 2— Self-ownership: structure in that each person owns his life decisions; and 3— Leximin system opportunity: by that structure each person has the greatest possible opportunity to do anything could want to do.

In a truly free society, those with fewer opportunities starting, have the maximum that could have in any other social order that we can perform. Some of the advantages that create de facto implementation of the UBI through a tax reform of personal income tax would be:

1— Redistribution of wealth.

2— Improving the lower strata of society at all levels, always more vulnerable and limited access to employment. Increased opportunities.

3— Increased bargaining power of the worker, eliminating the need for factor, which makes freedom impossible.

4— Increasing the conditions of the most unpleasant jobs.

5— Savings in administrative costs control, receiving the UBI, to find work not lose, probably decrease of illegal work.

6— Redistribution of work among more than one partition or the working days between more than one. No need for eight hours, freedom to choose how much time is allocated to paid work —as required—.

7— Increased balance between the three types of work exist: paid work, housework and volunteer work. Depending on requirements, and choice of each individual. Best social balance.

8— And the most important: increasing equality between people, but especially of freedom.

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array(4) { [0]=> object(WP_Post)#1687 (24) { ["ID"]=> int(7054) ["post_author"]=> string(4) "2049" ["post_date"]=> string(19) "2018-10-06 18:39:43" ["post_date_gmt"]=> string(19) "2018-10-06 16:39:43" ["post_content"]=> string(2709) "'Debemos aprovechar todas las potencialidades del cambio tecnológico desde el punto de vista democratizador y reductor de las desigualdades'. Politólogo y estudioso experto en temas como ciudadanía y gobernanza, gestión pública y análisis de políticas públicas y también en temas como inclusión y exclusión social, ciudad y espacio público, sociedad civil y proyectos de innovación democrática. Fue el director desde su fundación en 2009 del Instituto Universitario de Gobierno y Políticas Públicas de la UAB. Autor de numerosos libros, estudios y artículos académicos relacionados con estas temáticas, es colaborador asiduo en medios de comunicación como El País o eldiario.es. Además de su trabajo como académico, profesor y escritor, Joan Subirats es un miembro activo en proyectos de innovación democrática y de participación en la propia sociedad civil. El más reciente y vivo, Guanyem Barcelona, la plataforma ciudadana que reacciona a la realidad política, financiera y de gobernanza actual, para un proceso de construcción colectiva de la ciudad a todos los niveles, del que es uno de sus tres portavoces y activos principales, junto a Ada Colau y Jaume Asens. Una iniciativa de fuerte eco, un proyecto de reapropiación de la ciudad y de la política por parte de la ciudadanía.

'We must to take advantage of the full potential of technological change from the point of view of democratization and to reduce inequalities'.

Political scientist and expert on topics such as citizenship and governance, public management and public policy analysis and also on issues such as social inclusion and exclusion, city and public space, civil society and democratic innovation projects. He was the director since its founding in 2009 of the Institute of Government and Public Policy at UAB. Author of several books, studies and academic articles on these topics, is a regular contributor in the media as El País or eldiario.es. Besides his work as an academic, teacher and writer, Joan Subirats is an active member in democratic innovation projects and participation in civil society. The most recent and vivid, Guanyem Barcelona, a citizen platform that reacts to the political, financial and governance current reality to a process of collective construction of the city at all levels, which is one of its three main speakers along with Ada Colau and Jaume Asens. A strong initiative, a project of reappropriation of the city and politics by the citizens.

" ["post_title"]=> string(115) "WHAT ABOUT: El futuro por Joan SubiratsWHAT ABOUT: The future by Joan Subirats" ["post_excerpt"]=> string(0) "" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["comment_status"]=> string(6) "closed" ["ping_status"]=> string(6) "closed" ["post_password"]=> string(0) "" ["post_name"]=> string(38) "what-about-the-future-by-joan-subirats" ["to_ping"]=> string(0) "" ["pinged"]=> string(0) "" ["post_modified"]=> string(19) "2021-05-05 14:54:50" ["post_modified_gmt"]=> string(19) "2021-05-05 12:54:50" ["post_content_filtered"]=> string(0) "" ["post_parent"]=> int(0) ["guid"]=> string(29) "http://whatonline.org/?p=7054" ["menu_order"]=> int(0) ["post_type"]=> string(4) "post" ["post_mime_type"]=> string(0) "" ["comment_count"]=> string(1) "0" ["filter"]=> string(3) "raw" } [1]=> object(WP_Post)#1685 (24) { ["ID"]=> int(2938) ["post_author"]=> string(4) "2049" ["post_date"]=> string(19) "2012-07-09 00:05:51" ["post_date_gmt"]=> string(19) "2012-07-08 22:05:51" ["post_content"]=> string(3789) "Noam Chomsky es un lingüista, filósofo y activista estadounidense. Profesor emérito de lingüística en el MIT —Instituto Tecnológico de Massachusetts—, está considerado una de las figuras más destacadas en dicha especialidad gracias a sus trabajos sobre teoría lingüística y ciencia cognitiva, como la Jerarquía de Chomsky. Doctor Honoris Causa por la Universidad Nacional de Colombia, la Universidad de la Frontera de Chile y la Universidad Autónoma de México, el periódico The New York Times llegó a definirlo como 'el más importante de los pensadores contemporáneos'. Aunque quizá la faceta más popular de Chomsky sea su firme compromiso con la política, que comenzó en los años de la guerra de Vietnam y le llevó a afiliarse al sindicato IWW / Industrial Workers of the World —Trabajadores Industriales del Mundo—. Su activismo está caracterizado por una fuerte crítica al capitalismo contemporáneo, a la política exterior de Estados Unidos e Israel y a la manipulación de la población por parte de la élites económicas y los gobiernos. Uno de sus principales aportes intelectuales en el ámbito de la política ha sido el análisis de los medios de comunicación y los enfoques sesgados, o incluso engaños, que percibe detrás de su supuesta neutralidad. Se trata de un trabajo de contrainformación que ha inspirado a muchos otros autores y ha sido plasmado en obras como el ensayo 'Los guardianes de la libertad' —Manufacturing Consent: The Political Economy of the Mass Media—, escrito en 1988 en colaboración con el economista y profesor de la Universidad de Pennsylvania Edward S. Herman. En este vídeo se cuestiona si los miembros de una sociedad democrática bombardeada constantemente con técnicas de marketing pueden ser capaces de escoger libremente.Noam Chomsky is an American linguist, philosopher and activist. Professor Emeritus of Linguistics at the MIT —Massachusetts Institute of Technology—, he is considered one of the leading figures in this field thanks to his work on linguistic theory and cognitive science, as the Chomsky Hierarchy. Doctor Honoris Causa by the Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Universidad de la Frontera de Chile and the Universidad Autónoma de México, The New York Times once defined him as 'one of the most important contemporary thinkers'. But perhaps the most popular aspect of Chomsky is his strongly committment to politics that began in the years of the Vietnam War and led him to join the union IWW / Industrial Workers of the World. His activism is characterized by a strong criticism of contemporary capitalism, the United States’ and Israel foreign policy and the manipulation of the population by the economic elites and governments. One of its main intellectual contributions in the field of politics has been the analysis of the media and biased approaches, or even cheating, that he perceives behind his supposed neutrality. This is a work of disinformation that has inspired many other authors and has been reflected in works like the essay 'Manufacturing Consent: The Political Economy of the Mass Media', written in 1988 in collaboration with the economist and professor at the University of Pennsylvania, Edward S. Herman. This video questions whether members of a democratic society, bombed with marketing techniques, may be able to choose freely." ["post_title"]=> string(116) "¿Son compatibles democracia y marketing?Are democracy and marketing compatible?" ["post_excerpt"]=> string(0) "" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["comment_status"]=> string(4) "open" ["ping_status"]=> string(4) "open" ["post_password"]=> string(0) "" ["post_name"]=> string(38) "are-democracy-and-marketing-compatible" ["to_ping"]=> string(0) "" ["pinged"]=> string(0) "" ["post_modified"]=> string(19) "2020-03-03 00:52:07" ["post_modified_gmt"]=> string(19) "2020-03-02 23:52:07" ["post_content_filtered"]=> string(0) "" ["post_parent"]=> int(0) ["guid"]=> string(29) "http://whatonline.org/?p=2938" ["menu_order"]=> int(0) ["post_type"]=> string(4) "post" ["post_mime_type"]=> string(0) "" ["comment_count"]=> string(1) "1" ["filter"]=> string(3) "raw" } [2]=> object(WP_Post)#1688 (24) { ["ID"]=> int(5865) ["post_author"]=> string(4) "2049" ["post_date"]=> string(19) "2014-05-12 00:01:52" ["post_date_gmt"]=> string(19) "2014-05-11 22:01:52" ["post_content"]=> string(3297) "'Sé por experiencia que cuanto más das, más recibes'. Albañil y militante anarquista nacido en Navarra, huyó a Francia en 1954 después de desertar del servicio militar. Debido a su actividad clandestina en pro de grupos de extrema izquierda internacionales es considerado como una especie de Robin Hood, aunque en palabras de Albert Boadella 'Lucio es un Quijote que no luchó contra molinos de viento, sino contra gigantes de verdad'. Amigo de André Breton y Albert Camus, a lo largo de su vida ha participado en un gran número de actos contra el sistema capitalista que supusieron que se dictaran en su contra cinco órdenes internacionales de busca y captura, incluida una de la CIA. Destacan la proposición al Che Guevara para falsificar masivamente dólares americanos —finalmente rechazada—, la participación en la preparación del secuestro del nazi Klaus Barbie en Bolivia, la colaboración en la fuga del líder de los Panteras Negras, la intercesión en el secuestro de Javier Rupérez o su colaboración en la fuga de prisión de Albert Boadella, que se encontraba en espera de un juicio por un delito de injurias al ejército. Además simpatizó con los Grupos Autónomos de Combate-Movimiento Ibérico de Liberación y con los posteriores Grupos de Acción Revolucionaria Internacionalista —GARI—, manteniendo una especial relación con uno de los miembros más destacados de estos últimos, el francés Jean-Marc Rouillan. Siempre ha defendido el trabajo: 'Somos albañiles, pintores, electricistas, no necesitamos el Estado para nada'. Actualmente sigue participando en la difusión de las ideas anarquistas y continúa viviendo en París de su trabajo de albañil, en una casa con las puertas abiertas.'I know from experience that the more you give, the more you receive'. Mason and militant anarchist born in Navarra, he fled to France in 1954 after defecting from military service. Due to its clandestine activities towards international left-wing groups is considered as a kind of Robin Hood, but in the words of Albert Boadella 'Lucio is a Quijote that did not fight windmills, but against real giants'. Friend of André Breton and Albert Camus, throughout his life has been involved in numerous acts against the Capitalist system which supposed five international search orders, including one of the CIA. Highlights include the proposal to Che Guevara to fake massively American dollars —finally rejected—, the participation in the preparation of the kidnapping of nazi Klaus Barbie in Bolivia, the collaboration in the escape of the leader of the Black Panthers, the intercession on the kidnapping of Javier Rupérez or his help in Albert Boadella's jailbreak, who was awaiting trial for a crime of insulting the Army. He also sympathized with the Autonomous Combat Groups Iberian Liberation Movement and post-Revolutionary Internationalist Action Groups —GARI—, maintaining a special relationship with one of the most prominent members of the latter, the French Jean-Marc Rouillan. He has always defended work: 'We are masons, painters, electricians, we need the state for nothing'. Currently he is still involved in spreading anarchist ideas and continues living in Paris in a house with open doors." ["post_title"]=> string(114) "WHAT ABOUT: El futuro por Lucio UrtubiaWHAT ABOUT: The future by Lucio Urtubia" ["post_excerpt"]=> string(0) "" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["comment_status"]=> string(6) "closed" ["ping_status"]=> string(6) "closed" ["post_password"]=> string(0) "" ["post_name"]=> string(38) "what-about-the-future-by-lucio-urtubia" ["to_ping"]=> string(0) "" ["pinged"]=> string(0) "" ["post_modified"]=> string(19) "2021-05-05 14:58:06" ["post_modified_gmt"]=> string(19) "2021-05-05 12:58:06" ["post_content_filtered"]=> string(0) "" ["post_parent"]=> int(0) ["guid"]=> string(29) "http://whatonline.org/?p=5865" ["menu_order"]=> int(0) ["post_type"]=> string(4) "post" ["post_mime_type"]=> string(0) "" ["comment_count"]=> string(1) "0" ["filter"]=> string(3) "raw" } [3]=> object(WP_Post)#1848 (24) { ["ID"]=> int(7142) ["post_author"]=> string(4) "2049" ["post_date"]=> string(19) "2015-03-01 00:56:31" ["post_date_gmt"]=> string(19) "2015-02-28 23:56:31" ["post_content"]=> string(2538) "Hace 150 años una corporación era una entidad relativamente insignificante. Hoy es una presencia viva y generalizada en nuestras vidas que afecta a lo que comemos, lo que vemos e incluso lo que pensamos. Del mismo modo que la Iglesia, la Monarquía o el Partido Comunista en otros tiempos y lugares, es la institución dominante de nuestros días. Pero la Historia acostumbra a terminar derribando a las instituciones dominantes; todas han sido sustituidas o absorbidas por un orden nuevo, y sería una sorpresa mayúscula que la corporación multinacional sea la primera en desafiar a la Historia. Basado en el libro de Joel Bakan La corporación: la búsqueda patológica del beneficio y el poder, el documental La corporación es una investigación meticulosa y crítica que examina la naturaleza misma de este tipo de sociedades: su funcionamiento interno, su curiosa historia, su controvertido impacto y sus posibles futuros. El documento empieza revelando que, por ley, las corporaciones tienen todos los derechos y sin embargo casi ninguno de los deberes o responsabilidades de las personas. Más adelante, al estudiar su comportamiento bajo el prisma del DSM —el manual estándar de la evaluación psiquiátrica—, los autores descubren que, si la corporación fuese realmente una persona, sería considerada una psicópata.One hundred and fifty years ago, the corporation was a relatively insignificant entity. Now it is a vivid and pervasive presence in all our lives. Like the Church, the Monarchy or the Communist Party in other times and places, it is today’s dominant institution. But History humbles dominant institutions; all have been crushed or absorbed into some new order, and the corporation is unlikely to be the first institution to defy History. Based on Joel Bakan's book The corporation: the pathological pursuit of profit and power, the documentary The corporation is a timely, critical inquiry that examines the very nature of this kind of companies: its inner workings, curious history, controversial impacts and possible futures. We begin by learning that, under the law, corporations have all the rights and yet few of the responsibilities of people. Later, by viewing the behavior of the corporation through the prism DSM —Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, the gold standard of psychiatric evaluation— the authors discover that if the corporation were indeed a person, the person would be considered a psychopath." 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