13/10/2014

We are all in the same boat

Zygmunt Bauman is a sociologist and philosopher of Polish origin, best known for his creation and development of the concept of ‘liquid modernity’. Thinker, essayist and professor of universities worldwide, has built a large package of knowledge, to issues such as modernity and postmodernity, social classes, hermeneutics, social engineering, holocaust or new poverty. Author of numerous books of great academic and social impact as ‘Liquid times or ‘Modernity and the Holocaust’, among many others, is considered one of the most important sociologists of the XX century.

Other concepts such as ‘gardening society’ are present in his work and lead to reflection about how bureaucratic, political and social apparatus turns to social engineering —design and configure the power to society: who fits and who does not, to whom it is a benefit and who does not… all that relates to bureaucratic and legal aspects— to ends that make it work as a garden: the gardener —the State— can give you the look and color to the garden you want, and the dangers that this posed and the immense consequences that can have social and humanitarian level are the main thesis of ‘Modernity and the Holocaust’ and part of ‘Wasted lives’.

In this excerpt from the interview made by Fernando Schüller and Mário Mazzilly for the Brazilian project Fronteiras do Pensamento, Bauman reflects on the social condition of the world in the XX and early XXI centuries. A profound speech, full of knowledge and social and political criticism, basting through his own idea, changing the strength of the liquidity in the postmodern era and what supposed to humanity.

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array(4) { [0]=> object(WP_Post)#1757 (24) { ["ID"]=> int(5166) ["post_author"]=> string(4) "2049" ["post_date"]=> string(19) "2013-08-19 00:01:28" ["post_date_gmt"]=> string(19) "2013-08-18 22:01:28" ["post_content"]=> string(7376) "El triángulo de la violencia, definido por el sociólogo noruego Johan Galtung, identifica tres tipos de violencia y sostiene que el fenómeno tiene una estructura similar a la de un iceberg, ya que tras su parte visible siempre existe una mucho mayor que permanece oculta. La violencia directa correspondería a la punta del iceberg y tiene como principal característica el hecho de que la mayoría de sus efectos son visibles, principalmente los materiales, aunque no todos: el odio generado, los traumas psicológicos creados o la aparición de conceptos como el de 'enemigo' son efectos igual de graves que no suelen ser considerados como tales. Al ser el tipo de violencia más conocida y evidente, es común pensar que es la peor de todas las violencias, lo cual no es cierto precisamente por esa visibilidad, que la hace más fácil de identificar y por tanto de combatir. Es importante señalar que este tipo de violencia es la manifestación de algo, no su origen, y es en los orígenes donde deben buscarse las causas y puede actuarse con mayor eficacia. La violencia directa no afecta a tantas personas como las otras dos, cultural y estructural, que formarían la parte oculta del iceberg. La violencia cultural es una violencia simbólica, que se expresa en infinidad de medios —religión, ideología, lenguaje, arte, ciencia, medios de comunicación, educación, etc—y cumple la función de legitimar la violencia directa y estructural, así como de inhibir o reprimir la respuesta de quienes la sufren. Ofrece incluso justificaciones para que los seres humanos, a diferencia del resto de especies, se destruyan mutuamente y hasta sean recompensados por hacerlo: no es extraño aceptar la violencia en nombre de la patria o de la religión. Existe una cultura de la violencia en la que las escuelas y demás medios de transmisión y reproducción de cultura muestran la historia como una sucesión de guerras; la costumbre es que los conflictos se repriman por la incuestionable autoridad paterna, o por la autoridad del macho sobre la hembra; los medios de comunicación de masas venden el uso de ejércitos como la vía principal de solución de los conflictos internacionales, etc. De modo que la vida transcurre en un ambiente de violencia constante, que se manifiesta a diario en todos los ámbitos y a todos los niveles. La violencia estructural aparece cuando, como resultado de procesos de estratificación social, se produce un perjuicio en la satisfacción de las necesidades humanas básicas: supervivencia, bienestar, identidad, libertad, etc. Está originada por todo un conjunto de estructuras, tanto físicas como organizativas, que no permiten la satisfacción de esas necesidades y es la peor de las tres violencias porque es el origen de todas, la que más mata y a más personas afecta. Es también un tipo de violencia indirecta y en ocasiones incluso no intencionada: las acciones que provocan el hambre en el mundo, por ejemplo, no están diseñadas y realizadas directamente con ese fin, sino que derivan de la política económica capitalista y el injusto reparto de la riqueza. Esto provoca que, al contrario de lo que ocurre con la violencia directa, en ocasiones las causas que producen la violencia estructural no sean visibles con claridad y sea más complicado enfrentarse a ella. Siempre según Galtung, a menudo las causas de la violencia directa están relacionadas con situaciones de violencia estructural y justificadas por la violencia cultural: muchas situaciones son consecuencia de un abuso de poder que recae sobre un grupo oprimido, o de una situación de injusticia social —reparto de recursos insuficiente, gran desigualdad en la renta de las personas, dificultad de acceso a los servicios sociales— y reciben el espaldarazo de discursos que las justifican.The triangle of violence, defined by the Norwegian sociologist Johan Galtung, identifies three types of violence and argues that the phenomenon has a similar structure to that of an iceberg, in which there is always a small visible part and a huge hidden part. Direct violence is the tip of the iceberg and has as its main characteristic the fact that most of its effects are visible, mainly the materials, but not all of them: hate, psychological trauma or the emergence of concepts such as 'enemy' are equally serious effects, but they are often not seen as such. Being the most popular and obvious, it is commonly thought that direct is the worst kind of violence, which is not true for precisely this visibility, which makes it easier to identify and therefore to combat. It is important to note that this type of violence is the manifestation of something, not its origin, and is in the beginning where it should be sought causes and act more effectively. Direct violence does not affect many people as cultural and structural violence, which are the hidden part of the iceberg. Cultural violence is a symbolic violence that is expressed in countless media —religion, ideology, language, art, science, media, education, etc— and serves to legitimize direct and structural violence and to inhibit or suppress the response of the victims. It even offers justifications for humans, unlike other species, to destroy each other and to be rewarded for doing so: it is not strange to accept violence in the name of country or religion. There is a culture of violence in which schools and other instruments of transmission and reproduction of culture show History as a succession of wars; it is usual to suppress conflicts by unquestioned parental authority, or authority of the male over the female; mass media sell armies use as the main way of solving international conflicts, etc. So life goes on in an atmosphere of constant violence, manifested daily in all areas and at all levels. Structural violence is displayed when, as a result of social stratification processes, there is a damage in the satisfaction of basic human needs: survival, welfare, identity, freedom, etc. It is caused by a set of structures, both physical and organizational, which do not allow the satisfaction of those needs and is the worst of the three violence because it is the origin of all and kills and affects more people. It is also a form of indirect violence and sometimes even unintentional: the actions that cause hunger, for example, are not designed and made ​​directly for that purpose, but they are result from capitalist economic policy and the unfair distribution of wealth. This sometimes causes that the reasons of structural violence are not clearly visible and therefore it is more difficult to deal with it. According to Galtung, often causes of direct violence are related to structural violence and justified by cultural violence: many situations are the result of an abuse of power which concerns an oppressed group, or a social injustice —insufficient resources sharing, great inequality in personal income, limited access to social services— and receive the backing of speeches justifying them." 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Semejante circunstancia sólo puede ser manejada con éxito por elementos externos al propio ser humano, según Durkheim: las religiones y las sociedades, con sus conjuntos de reglas morales y éticas, deben servir para poner límites al deseo individual y funcionar como 'una fuerza reguladora que cumpla el mismo rol respecto a las necesidades morales que el cumplido por el organismo para las necesidades físicas'. Este vídeo está inspirado por estas ideas, concebidas a finales del siglo XIX, y reflexiona sobre su vigencia en la vida de hoy, a principios del XXI.For the French sociologist Emile Durkheim, one of the great pioneers in the study of social sciences with Karl Marx and Max Weber, humans are creatures whose desires are unlimited, and unlike other animals, are not satisfied when their biological needs are satisfied. According to Durkheim, these circumstances can only be successfully managed by elements external to the human being: the religions and societies, with their sets of moral and ethical rules, should serve to put limits on individual desire and work as 'a regulatory force that fulfills the same role with respect to the moral needs met by the body for the physical needs'. This video is inspired by these ideas, conceived in the late nineteenth century, and reflects on its relevance in today's life in early XXI." ["post_title"]=> string(81) "Ningún hombre es una islaNo man is an island" ["post_excerpt"]=> string(0) "" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["comment_status"]=> string(4) "open" ["ping_status"]=> string(4) "open" ["post_password"]=> string(0) "" ["post_name"]=> string(19) "no-man-is-an-island" ["to_ping"]=> string(0) "" ["pinged"]=> string(0) "" ["post_modified"]=> string(19) "2014-07-13 14:29:40" ["post_modified_gmt"]=> string(19) "2014-07-13 12:29:40" ["post_content_filtered"]=> string(0) "" ["post_parent"]=> int(0) ["guid"]=> string(29) "http://whatonline.org/?p=3089" ["menu_order"]=> int(0) ["post_type"]=> string(4) "post" ["post_mime_type"]=> string(0) "" ["comment_count"]=> string(1) "0" ["filter"]=> string(3) "raw" } [2]=> object(WP_Post)#1759 (24) { ["ID"]=> int(5216) ["post_author"]=> string(4) "2049" ["post_date"]=> string(19) "2013-09-09 00:01:57" ["post_date_gmt"]=> string(19) "2013-09-08 22:01:57" ["post_content"]=> string(1703) "'La vida, y no solo la humana, será la protagonista del futuro'. Fundador de Ideas for Change, un think-tank estratégico para clientes como Telefónica, Universitat Oberta de Catalunya, el Gobierno Vasco o el Ayuntamiento de Barcelona, Javier está considerado uno de los principales estrategas y pensadores sobre economía colaborativa, modelos de negocio P2P e innovación ciudadana en España. Ha sido planificador estratégico freelance para la mayoría de las mejores agencias de publicidad del país y profesor de marketing en ESADE, además de co-fundador de Digital Mood y del espacio multidisciplinar @kubik. Co-autor del libro 'No somos hormigas', publica regularmente en la revista Yorokubu y es miembro activo de Open Knowledge Foundation, Ouishare, The School of Commons y MLove.'Life, and not only human life, will be the protagonist of the future'. Founder of Ideas for Change, a strategic think-tank for clients such as Telefónica, Open University of Catalonia, the Bask Goverment or the City Council of Barcelona, Javier is considered to be one of the primary strategists and thought leaders in collaborative economy, open and P2P business models, citizen innovation and the networked society in Spain. He has been a freelance strategic planner for many of the most creative agencies in Spain, co founder of Digital Mood incubator and @kubik multidisciplinary space, and services marketing professor at ESADE. Co-author of 'No somos hormigas' (We are not ants), publishes regularily at Yorokobu magazine and is an active member of the Open Knowledge Foundation, Ouishare, The School of Commons and MLove." ["post_title"]=> string(112) "WHAT ABOUT: El futuro por Javier CreusWHAT ABOUT: The future by Javier Creus" ["post_excerpt"]=> string(0) "" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["comment_status"]=> string(4) "open" ["ping_status"]=> string(4) "open" ["post_password"]=> string(0) "" ["post_name"]=> string(37) "what-about-the-future-by-javier-creus" ["to_ping"]=> string(0) "" ["pinged"]=> string(0) "" ["post_modified"]=> string(19) "2021-05-05 15:01:28" ["post_modified_gmt"]=> string(19) "2021-05-05 13:01:28" ["post_content_filtered"]=> string(0) "" ["post_parent"]=> int(0) ["guid"]=> string(29) "http://whatonline.org/?p=5216" ["menu_order"]=> int(0) ["post_type"]=> string(4) "post" ["post_mime_type"]=> string(0) "" ["comment_count"]=> string(1) "0" ["filter"]=> string(3) "raw" } [3]=> object(WP_Post)#1863 (24) { ["ID"]=> int(4156) ["post_author"]=> string(4) "2049" ["post_date"]=> string(19) "2013-03-25 00:01:06" ["post_date_gmt"]=> string(19) "2013-03-24 23:01:06" ["post_content"]=> string(1607) "'Para sobrevivir, hemos de sustituir la competición por la colaboración'. Ingeniero en informática, ha trabajado durante más de 40 años en distintas áreas dentro del ámbito de las Tecnologías de la Información y las Comunicaciones (TIC), los últimos 20 ejerciendo como directivo en diversas entidades financieras y del sector  de los seguros, gestionando direcciones de TI, organización, logística y recursos humanos. Actualmente, decepcionado por el entorno del mundo financiero y por decisión propia, trabaja de taxista con su propia licencia. 'No he estudiado y trabajado tanto para engañar a la gente ni para tener que hacer cosas inaceptables. Buscaba no tener jefes y es lo mejor que me ha pasado'. Practica el budismo y la meditación como herramienta para el crecimiento personal.'To survive, we have to replace competition for collaboration'. A Computer engineer, he has worked for over 40 years in several areas within the field of Technology on Information and Communications (TIC), the last 20 as an executive, playing his trade in different financial entities and in the insurance industry, managing TI, organization, logistics and human resources addresses. Currently, disappointed by the environment of the financial world and by free choice, works as a taxi driver with his own license. 'I did not studied and worked so hard to trick people or to have to do unacceptable things. I wanted to live without a boss and it's the best thing ever happened to me'. He practices Buddhism and meditation as a tool for personal growth." 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