19/08/2013

Direct, cultural and structural violence

The triangle of violence, defined by the Norwegian sociologist Johan Galtung, identifies three types of violence and argues that the phenomenon has a similar structure to that of an iceberg, in which there is always a small visible part and a huge hidden part.

Direct violence is the tip of the iceberg and has as its main characteristic the fact that most of its effects are visible, mainly the materials, but not all of them: hate, psychological trauma or the emergence of concepts such as ‘enemy’ are equally serious effects, but they are often not seen as such. Being the most popular and obvious, it is commonly thought that direct is the worst kind of violence, which is not true for precisely this visibility, which makes it easier to identify and therefore to combat. It is important to note that this type of violence is the manifestation of something, not its origin, and is in the beginning where it should be sought causes and act more effectively. Direct violence does not affect many people as cultural and structural violence, which are the hidden part of the iceberg.

Cultural violence is a symbolic violence that is expressed in countless media —religion, ideology, language, art, science, media, education, etc— and serves to legitimize direct and structural violence and to inhibit or suppress the response of the victims. It even offers justifications for humans, unlike other species, to destroy each other and to be rewarded for doing so: it is not strange to accept violence in the name of country or religion. There is a culture of violence in which schools and other instruments of transmission and reproduction of culture show History as a succession of wars; it is usual to suppress conflicts by unquestioned parental authority, or authority of the male over the female; mass media sell armies use as the main way of solving international conflicts, etc. So life goes on in an atmosphere of constant violence, manifested daily in all areas and at all levels.

Structural violence is displayed when, as a result of social stratification processes, there is a damage in the satisfaction of basic human needs: survival, welfare, identity, freedom, etc. It is caused by a set of structures, both physical and organizational, which do not allow the satisfaction of those needs and is the worst of the three violence because it is the origin of all and kills and affects more people. It is also a form of indirect violence and sometimes even unintentional: the actions that cause hunger, for example, are not designed and made ​​directly for that purpose, but they are result from capitalist economic policy and the unfair distribution of wealth. This sometimes causes that the reasons of structural violence are not clearly visible and therefore it is more difficult to deal with it.

According to Galtung, often causes of direct violence are related to structural violence and justified by cultural violence: many situations are the result of an abuse of power which concerns an oppressed group, or a social injustice —insufficient resources sharing, great inequality in personal income, limited access to social services— and receive the backing of speeches justifying them.

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array(4) { [0]=> object(WP_Post)#1671 (24) { ["ID"]=> int(5611) ["post_author"]=> string(3) "131" ["post_date"]=> string(19) "2014-02-17 00:01:47" ["post_date_gmt"]=> string(19) "2014-02-16 23:01:47" ["post_content"]=> string(7267) "La industria que más ha evolucionado, la única que realmente ha evolucionado, es la industria de la comunicación; dispositivos móviles, redes sociales, internet, broadband. La comunicación ha permitido un mundo súper conectado acelerando cambios económicos y sociales con una rapidez hasta hace poco inimaginable. La era que vivimos es la del acceso universal, formamos parte de una consciencia global donde la información es inmediata sin barreras tecnológicas o geográficas. Philip K Dick, Asimov  o Stanislav Lem no pudieron imaginar un mundo donde el saber de mil Alejandrías estuviera almacenado en un espacio etéreo llamado nube y accesible a golpe de click, donde quieras, cuando quieras, lo que quieras. Julio Verne no pudo imaginar comunidades formadas por millones de individuos, siglos de cultura en la palma de la mano, toda la historia en gran cinemascope a través de unas simples gafas, un mundo donde autor y espectador se funden, se confunden, se intercambian hasta formar una sola entidad. Y en este mundo en plena transformación, que gira más rápido y gira diferente, el repartidor de periódicos continúa pedaleando colina abajo y sin frenos, directo hacia ese abismo donde las cosas ya no tienen razón de ser. Los principales diarios españoles han pasado de tener de media 200 mil lectores que pagaban euro y medio cada día, a seis millones que no pagan un céntimo. Han pasado de 200 mil lectores y una estructura de dos mil empleados, a seis millones de lectores y la mitad de la plantilla, de facturar 500 millones anuales a luchar por alcanzar los 300 millones. De marcar al político el camino a pedirle ayuda para subsistir. Y el repartidor se precipita colina abajo, cada vez más rápido. W_thepaperboy2
Repartidores de periódicos a principios del siglo XX —Imagen Unknown Author
Los principales grupos periodísticos diseñaron un lucrativo modelo de negocio basado en tres fuentes de ingreso: la venta de contenidos, la publicidad y las promociones. Pero, aunque eran los contenidos el reclamo de las otras dos, fue ésta la partida que sacaron de la cuenta de resultados, reduciendo el precio, menguando el valor. Cuando el negocio promocional se agotó y la crisis hundió la inversión publicitaria a la mitad, los contenidos no valían nada, aspecto bastante paradójico, pues son consumidos por millones de internautas y cuestan mucho de elaborar. Hace rato que el precipicio es visible para el repartidor de periódicos, hace tiempo que sabe que tiene que virar hacia nuevos horizontes, con modelos de negocio más sostenibles. Pero hace tiempo que el repartidor cambió la bicicleta por un camión de 16 ruedas y 20 toneladas. Y maniobrar ese trasto no es nada sencillo. La industria que más ha evolucionado, la única que ha evolucionado, es la industria de la comunicación, pero esa evolución conlleva cambios dramáticos en el modelo de negocio de los agentes que participan, en su estructura y en la forma en que se relacionan con su audiencia. Se levantarán murallas de pago, y caerán castillos, se unirán familias y se fusionarán imperios. Se derramará sangre, ya hay mucha sangre en el campo de batalla, demasiada, pero también habrá riqueza, porque hablamos de un mercado de 7000 millones de consumidores, y el premio será para aquellos que mejor sepan gestionar  la incertidumbre y monetizar sus contenidos. Sacar partido de un bien tan preciado como es la información.The industry that has evolved the most and the only one that has really evolved is the communication industry; mobile devices, social media, internet and broadband. Communication has allowed a super connected world, accelerating social and economic changes with a speed unimaginable until recently. We are living the age of universal access. We are part of a global consciousness where information is immediate without technological or geographical barriers. Philip K Dick, Asimov or Stanislav Lem could not have expected a world where thousands of books were stored in an ethereal space called the cloud and accessible with a simple click where you want, when you want, what you want. Jules Verne did not imagined about communities formed by million people, centuries of culture in the palm of your hand, the whole story in great cinemascope through some simple glasses, a world where author and spectator merge, become confused and they are exchanged until it forms a single entity. And in this transformational world, which rotates faster and spins differently, the paperboy continues pedaling downhill without brakes, straight into the abysm where things have no longer reason to be. The main Spanish newspapers have gone from an average of 200 thousand readers who paid one euro and a half each day to six million who do not pay a penny. It has gone from two hundred thousand readers and two thousand employees structure to six million readers and half of the workforce, from billing 500 million annually to strive to meet the 300 million. From leading politician’s paths to ask them help to survive. And the paperboy is precipitated downhill, faster and faster. W_thepaperboy2
Paperboys in the early XXth Century —Image Unknown Author
The main newspapers groups designed a lucrative business model based on three sources of income; content sale, advertising and promotions. But, even if the contents were the claim of the other two, this was the heading removed from the income statement, reducing the price and diminishing the value. When the promotional business was sold out and the crisis sank advertising investment to half, the contents were worthless. This is somewhat paradoxical as contents are consumed by millions of internet users and cost a lot to develop. This cliff has been visible to the paperboy since long, and he was warned to have to turn to new horizons with more sustainable business models. The paperboy changed the bicycle for a 16 wheel truck and 20 tons long time ago. But the problem is maneuvering that thing is not an easy task. The industry that has evolved the most and the only one that has really evolved is the communication industry, but evolution involves dramatic changes in the business model of the agents participating, in its structure and in the way they relate to their audience. Pay walls will rise and castles will fall, families will join and empires will merge. Blood will spill, there is already a lot of blood in the battlefield, too much, but there will be wealth because we talk about a market of 7000 million consumers, and the prize will be for those who are best able to manage uncertainty and monetize their content. Take advantage of something as precious as information." ["post_title"]=> string(106) "El repartidor de periódicos está en peligroThe paperboy is in danger" ["post_excerpt"]=> string(0) "" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["comment_status"]=> string(4) "open" ["ping_status"]=> string(4) "open" ["post_password"]=> string(0) "" ["post_name"]=> string(25) "the-paperboy-is-in-danger" ["to_ping"]=> string(0) "" ["pinged"]=> string(0) "" ["post_modified"]=> string(19) "2020-03-09 15:50:17" ["post_modified_gmt"]=> string(19) "2020-03-09 14:50:17" ["post_content_filtered"]=> string(0) "" ["post_parent"]=> int(0) ["guid"]=> string(29) "http://whatonline.org/?p=5611" ["menu_order"]=> int(0) ["post_type"]=> string(4) "post" ["post_mime_type"]=> string(0) "" ["comment_count"]=> string(1) "0" ["filter"]=> string(3) "raw" } [1]=> object(WP_Post)#1670 (24) { ["ID"]=> int(5216) ["post_author"]=> string(4) "2049" ["post_date"]=> string(19) "2013-09-09 00:01:57" ["post_date_gmt"]=> string(19) "2013-09-08 22:01:57" ["post_content"]=> string(1703) "'La vida, y no solo la humana, será la protagonista del futuro'. 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Founder of Ideas for Change, a strategic think-tank for clients such as Telefónica, Open University of Catalonia, the Bask Goverment or the City Council of Barcelona, Javier is considered to be one of the primary strategists and thought leaders in collaborative economy, open and P2P business models, citizen innovation and the networked society in Spain. He has been a freelance strategic planner for many of the most creative agencies in Spain, co founder of Digital Mood incubator and @kubik multidisciplinary space, and services marketing professor at ESADE. Co-author of 'No somos hormigas' (We are not ants), publishes regularily at Yorokobu magazine and is an active member of the Open Knowledge Foundation, Ouishare, The School of Commons and MLove." 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Empresario, político y doctor en ingeniería industrial por la Universidad Politécnica de Catalunya, ha sido alcalde de Mataró, ministro de Industria y Energía, miembro del comité organizador de los Juegos Olímpicos de Barcelona y director general de la Corporación Catalana de Radio y Televisión. Su actual labor está muy vinculada a la política de telecomunicaciones, investigación y ciencia de la Unión Europea: es consejero asesor de la comisión europea de telecomunicaciones informáticas, presidente del Information Society Forum de Bruselas, del European Institute for Media de Düsseldorf y del comité de expertos que evaluó la política científica y tecnológica europea por encargo del parlamento europeo.'Individualism as a standard of behavior will need to be corrected'. Businessman, politician and PhD in industrial engineering from the Polytechnic University of Catalonia, he has been Mayor of Mataro, Minister of Industry and Energy, member of the organizing committee of the Olympic Games in Barcelona and CEO of the Catalan Corporation of Radio and Television. His current work is closely related to telecommunications policy, research and science of the European Union: he is board advisor to the European Commission of computer telecommunications, president of the Information Society Forum in Brussels, the European Institute for Media in Düsseldorf and committee experts who evaluated the European scientific and technological policy on behalf of the European Parliament. " ["post_title"]=> string(108) "WHAT ABOUT: El futuro por Joan MajóWHAT ABOUT: The future by Joan Majó" ["post_excerpt"]=> string(0) "" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["comment_status"]=> string(4) "open" ["ping_status"]=> string(4) "open" ["post_password"]=> string(0) "" ["post_name"]=> string(34) "what-about-the-future-by-joan-majo" ["to_ping"]=> string(0) "" ["pinged"]=> string(0) "" ["post_modified"]=> string(19) "2021-05-05 18:00:13" ["post_modified_gmt"]=> string(19) "2021-05-05 16:00:13" ["post_content_filtered"]=> string(0) "" ["post_parent"]=> int(0) ["guid"]=> string(29) "http://whatonline.org/?p=2259" ["menu_order"]=> int(0) ["post_type"]=> string(4) "post" ["post_mime_type"]=> string(0) "" ["comment_count"]=> string(1) "0" ["filter"]=> string(3) "raw" } [3]=> object(WP_Post)#1794 (24) { ["ID"]=> int(2715) ["post_author"]=> string(4) "2049" ["post_date"]=> string(19) "2012-06-25 00:04:56" ["post_date_gmt"]=> string(19) "2012-06-24 22:04:56" ["post_content"]=> string(2119) "La Felicidad Nacional Bruta (FNB) o Felicidad Interior Bruta (FIB) es un indicador que mide la calidad de vida de las personas en términos más holísticos y psicológicos que el tradicional Producto Interior Bruto (PIB). 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Sus cuatro pilares son la promoción del desarrollo socioeconómico sostenible e igualitario, la preservación y promoción de valores culturales, la conservación del Medio Ambiente y el establecimiento de un buen gobierno.Gross National Happiness (GNH) or Gross Domestic Happiness (GDH) its an indicator that measures people's life quality in more holistic and psychological terms than the Gross Domestic Product (GDP). The term was proposed in 1972 by Jigme Singye Wangchuck, King of Buthan, as an answer to the constant criticism to the bad economy of the country. The measures resulting from this concept are applied in everyday life of the Bhutanese taking into account the peculiarities of their culture, based mainly in Buddhism. While conventional models observed economic growth as its main objective, the concept of GNH is based on the premise that true development of human society is in the complementarity and mutual reinforcement of material and spiritual developments. Its four pillars are: the promotion of sustainable and equitable socio-economic development, preservation and promotion of cultural values, conservation of the environment and the establishment of good governance." 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