19/04/2021

The Tao of physics

Fritjof Capra is a physicist and systems theorist, founding director of the Center for Ecoliteracy located since 1995 in Berkeley, California, which promotes ecology and systems thinking in primary and secondary education.

American born in Austria in 1939, Capra attended the University of Vienna, where he earned his PhD in theoretical physics in 1966. He conducted research in particle physics and systems theory for 20 years at the University of Paris, the University of California, the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, the Imperial College of London and the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. While at Berkeley, he was a member of the Fundamental Fysiks Group, founded in 1975 by Elizabeth Rauscher and George Weissmann, which met weekly to discuss philosophy and quantum physics.

For the past few years, Fritjof Capra has been researching the work of Leonardo Da Vinci —Image Cirone Musi

He advocates that Western culture abandon conventional linear thought and the mechanistic views of Descartes. Critiquing the reductionistic Cartesian view that everything can be studied in parts to understand the whole, he encourages a holistic approach.

Capra has written popular books on the implications of science, notably The Tao of Physics, accurately subtitled ‘An exploration of the parallels between modern physics and Eastern mysticism’. The author considers that in the attempt to understand the mystery of life, the human being has followed different paths, including the scientific and the mystical. He puts forward the thesis that the concepts of modern physics lead to a vision of the world very similar to that of mystics of all ages and traditions. The purpose of the essay is to explore the relationship between such concepts, motivated by the belief that the basic themes he uses to compare physics with mysticism will be confirmed —they are being confirmed, in fact— rather than invalidated by future research.

The book asserts that both physics and metaphysics lead inexorably to the same knowledge

For Capra the two pillars of modern physics are quantum theory and relativity theory, addressed in the first part of the essay. The Eastern philosophies that he refers to in the second part are Hinduism, Buddhism and Taoism.

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899
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array(4) { [0]=> object(WP_Post)#1672 (24) { ["ID"]=> int(5805) ["post_author"]=> string(3) "420" ["post_date"]=> string(19) "2014-03-03 00:01:54" ["post_date_gmt"]=> string(19) "2014-03-02 23:01:54" ["post_content"]=> string(6446) "Puede sonar a ciencia-ficción, pero el hecho es que existe un proyecto cuyo fin último es alcanzar algo parecido a la inmortalidad del ser humano. Este proyecto se llama Iniciativa 2045, aunque también se conoce con el nombre de Avatar, y está impulsado por el multimillonario ruso Dmitry Itskov. El mayor obstáculo para hacerlo realidad es tecnológico, pues todavía nadie ha desarrollado la capacidad de transferir la conciencia individual a robots y hologramas, que es, en última instancia, lo que Itskov y su equipo de científicos persiguen.
El multimillonario ruso, de solo 32 años —Imagen Unknown Author
Para alcanzar este objetivo, están previstas cuatro fases: 1) Avatar A, que se llevará a cabo entre 2015 y 2020, en la que podremos controlar a un robot con la mente; 2) Avatar B, entre 2020 y 2025, en la que seremos capaces de trasplantar el cerebro de una persona —al final de su vida— a un robot; 3) Avatar C, entre 2030 y 2035, que permitirá crear un androide con un cerebro artificial, al que se dotará de la conciencia, recuerdos y conocimientos de una persona antes de morir; y 4) Avatar D, entre los años 2035 y 2045, última fase en la que nuestra mente podrá ser transferida a un holograma, sin las limitaciones propias de la biología, a la que ahora estamos sometidos. Itskov, de tan solo 32 años, está convencido de que la inmortalidad cibernética se puede alcanzar, y a eso está dedicando su vida. Se vanagloria de que este proyecto está apoyado por el Dalái Lama y, tal y como aseguró en una entrevista para Muy Interesante, su intención es 'construir una sociedad donde las personas sean capaces de vivir en la abundancia y durante mucho tiempo, no sólo en nuestro planeta. Aunque ya somos técnicamente capaces de enviar colonos a la Luna y a Marte, con nuestra dotación biológica no sobreviviríamos allí por mucho tiempo. Los cuerpos artificiales, sin embargo, permitirían convertirnos en futurnautas, los primeros pobladores, los conquistadores del Universo. Entonces, no necesitaríamos ni comer ni beber, sobreviviríamos al frío y calor extremos y nos adaptaríamos a las altas y bajas presiones'. W_timetodie_B
Roy Batty podría convertirse en realidad como Avatar C en vez de como Nexus 6, e incluso ser mejorado como Avatar D —'Blade Runner', Ridley Scott, 1982
El Proyecto Avatar incide en que todo forma parte de la evolución: se trata de alcanzar el último escalón, el estadio superior. De él, nacerá una Humanidad más sabia, pacífica y justa. La idea, hoy por hoy, parece una utopía. 'La civilización ha llegado a materializar tecnologías impensables; no es una fantasía', insiste Itskov. ¿Seremos realmente capaces los seres humanos de llegar a convertirnos en seres de luz? La respuesta, razonablemente pronto.It may sound like science fiction, but the fact is that there is a project whose ultimate goal is to achieve something like the immortality of the human being. This project is called Initiative 2045, although it is also known as Avatar, and is powered by Russian billionaire Dmitry Itskov. The biggest obstacle is the technology to make it happens, because no one has yet developed the ability to transfer the individual consciousness to robots and holograms, which is ultimately what Itskov and his team of scientists are looking for.
The Russian billionaire, only 32 years old —Image Unknown Author
To achieve this goal four phases are planned: 1) Avatar A, which will take place between 2015 and 2020, in which we can control a robot with the mind; 2) Avatar B, between 2020 and 2025, in which be able to transplant the brain of a person —at the end of his life— to a robot, 3) Avatar C, between 2030 and 2035, in which we will create an android with an artificial brain, to be provisioned awareness, memories and knowledge of a person before die; and 4) Avatar D, between 2035 and 2045, the last phase in which our mind may be transferred to a hologram, without the limitations of biology, to which we are now subjected. Itskov, just 32, is convinced that the cybernetic immortality can be attained, and it is devoting his life. He boasts that this project is supported by the Dalai Lama and, as said in an interview for Muy Interesante magazine, its intention is 'to build a society where people are able to live in abundance and for a long time, not only in our planet. Although we are already technically capable of sending settlers to the Moon and Mars, with our biological endowment will not survive there for long. Artificial bodies, however, would become futurnauts, early settlers, the conquerors of the Universe. So we no need to eat or drink, we survive extreme heat and cold and we would adapt to the high and low pressures'. W_timetodie_B
Roy Batty could become reality as an Avatar C instead of a Nexus 6, and even been improved as an Avatar D —'Blade Runner', Ridley Scott, 1982
The Avatar Project emphasizes that all is part of the evolution: it is the last step to reach the higher stage. It will be born a wiser, peaceful and fairer humanity. The idea, today, seems utopian. 'Civilization has become unthinkable technologies into reality; it is not a fantasy', insists Itskov. Will we be able to become beings of light? The answer is coming soon." ["post_title"]=> string(110) "La inmortalidad, último paso evolutivoImmortality, last evolutionary step" ["post_excerpt"]=> string(0) "" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["comment_status"]=> string(6) "closed" ["ping_status"]=> string(6) "closed" ["post_password"]=> string(0) "" ["post_name"]=> string(34) "immortality-last-evolutionary-step" ["to_ping"]=> string(0) "" ["pinged"]=> string(0) "" ["post_modified"]=> string(19) "2020-02-19 00:14:01" ["post_modified_gmt"]=> string(19) "2020-02-18 23:14:01" ["post_content_filtered"]=> string(0) "" ["post_parent"]=> int(0) ["guid"]=> string(29) "http://whatonline.org/?p=5805" ["menu_order"]=> int(0) ["post_type"]=> string(4) "post" ["post_mime_type"]=> string(0) "" ["comment_count"]=> string(1) "0" ["filter"]=> string(3) "raw" } [1]=> object(WP_Post)#1666 (24) { ["ID"]=> int(3714) ["post_author"]=> string(4) "2049" ["post_date"]=> string(19) "2013-01-14 00:01:15" ["post_date_gmt"]=> string(19) "2013-01-13 23:01:15" ["post_content"]=> string(3593) "Alexander Lowen fue un médico, psicoterapeuta y profesor estadounidense, conocido principalmente por sus estudios sobre la bioenergética como forma de terapia. Estudió derecho en la Brooklyn Law School y se doctoró en medicina en la Universidad de Ginebra. Entró en contacto con Wilhelm Reich, uno de los primeros discípulos de Sigmund Freud, y estudió con él desde 1940 hasta 1952, año en el que empezó a dedicarse a la práctica profesional de la terapia psicocorporal. En 1956 fundó el International Institute for Bioenergetic Analysis (Instituto internacional de análisis bioenergético), con el objetivo de garantizar la formación adecuada de los terapeutas. Bastante antes de conocer a Reich, Lowen ya se había sentido atraído por la relación existente entre cuerpo y mente, tema sobre el que había investigado con auténtico interés. Según afirmaba, dicho interés era debido a su propia experiencia con las actividades físicas deportivas y con la calistenia, una técnica gimnástica destinada al desarrollo de la musculatura. Durante los años 30 se dedicó a estudiar a fondo el método Eurythmics del compositor Émile Jaques-Dalcroze y la Relajación Muscular Progresiva de Jacobson. Todo ello afianzó su convicción de que el ser humano puede influir en el funcionamiento de su mente si trabaja su cuerpo de forma sistemática y con los métodos adecuados, como explica en este vídeo.Alexander Lowen was an American doctor, psychotherapist and professor, mostly famous for his studies about bioenergetics as a form of therapy. He studied Law at the Brooklyn Law School and obtained his PhD in Medicine at the University of Geneva. He got to meet Wilhelm Reich, one of Sigmund Freud’s first disciples, and studied with him from 1940 to 1952, year in which he started to dedicate himself to the professional practice of psychocorporal therapy. In 1956 he founded the International Institute for Bioenergetic Analysis, aimed at guaranteeing the adequate training of therapists. Much before knowing Reich, Lowen had already felt drawn by the relationship between mind and body, a topic on which he had researched with a real interest. According to what he said, such interest was due to his own experience with physical activities/sports and with 'calisthenics', a gymnastic technique aimed at building up the muscles. During the 30’s, he dedicated himself to studying in depth the Eurythmics method from the composer Émile Jacques-Dalcroze and Jacobson’s Progressive Muscle Relaxation. All this comforted him in his conviction that human beings can have an influence on how their mind works if they exercise their body in a systematic way and with the right methods, as he explains in this video." ["post_title"]=> string(71) "Tú eres tu cuerpoYou are your body" ["post_excerpt"]=> string(0) "" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["comment_status"]=> string(4) "open" ["ping_status"]=> string(4) "open" ["post_password"]=> string(0) "" ["post_name"]=> string(17) "you-are-your-body" ["to_ping"]=> string(0) "" ["pinged"]=> string(0) "" ["post_modified"]=> string(19) "2014-07-03 00:07:50" ["post_modified_gmt"]=> string(19) "2014-07-02 22:07:50" ["post_content_filtered"]=> string(0) "" ["post_parent"]=> int(0) ["guid"]=> string(29) "http://whatonline.org/?p=3714" ["menu_order"]=> int(0) ["post_type"]=> string(4) "post" ["post_mime_type"]=> string(0) "" ["comment_count"]=> string(1) "0" ["filter"]=> string(3) "raw" } [2]=> object(WP_Post)#1673 (24) { ["ID"]=> int(4075) ["post_author"]=> string(4) "2049" ["post_date"]=> string(19) "2013-03-04 00:02:43" ["post_date_gmt"]=> string(19) "2013-03-03 23:02:43" ["post_content"]=> string(3483) "Viktor Frankl fue un neurólogo y psiquiatra austríaco. Sobrevivió desde 1942 hasta 1945 en varios campos de concentración nazis, incluidos Auschwitz y Dachau, y a partir de esa experiencia escribió el libro 'El hombre en busca de sentido', en el que describe la vida del prisionero de un campo de concentración desde la perspectiva de un psiquiatra y expone que, incluso en las condiciones más extremas de deshumanización y sufrimiento, el hombre puede encontrar una razón para vivir basada en su dimensión espiritual. Esta reflexión le sirvió para confirmar y terminar de desarrollar la logoterapia, una psicoterapia que propone que la voluntad de sentido es la motivación primaria del ser humano y que es considerada la tercera escuela vienesa de psicología, después del psicoanálisis de Freud y de la psicología individual de Adler. Siendo muy joven, Frankl había mantenido relación epistolar con Freud, quien le publicó algunos de sus escritos, pero muy pronto abandonó la escuela psicoanalítica y se orientó hacia la psicología individual de Adler, que también terminaría abandonando por diferencias doctrinales. Publicó más de 30 libros, traducidos a numerosos idiomas, impartió cursos y conferencias por todo el mundo y recibió 29 doctorados honoris causa por varias universidades, entre ellos uno de la Universidad Francisco Marroquín de Guatemala, institución que también le honró con la clínica de psicología que lleva su nombre. En esta entrevista explica su visión sobre las relaciones entre conceptos como libertad, circunstancias, responsabilidad o actitud.Viktor Frankl was an Austrian neurologist and psychiatrist. He survived from 1942 to 1945 in several Nazi concentration camps, including Auschwitz and Dachau, and from that experience he wrote the book 'Man's search for meaning', which describes the life of the prisoner of a concentration camp from the perspective of a psychiatrist and explains that, even in the most extreme conditions of dehumanization and suffering, man can find a reason to live based on their spiritual dimension. This reflection served to confirm and finalize the development of speech therapy, psychotherapy that proposes that the will to meaning is the primary motivation of human beings and that is considered the third Viennese school of psychology after Freud's psychoanalysis and individual psychology of Adler. Being very young, Frankl had maintained correspondence with Freud, who published some of his writings, but soon abandoned the psychoanalytic school and oriented towards the individual psychology of Adler, who also end up abandoning because of doctrinal differences. He published more than 30 books, translated into many languages​​, taught courses and lectured around the world and received 29 honorary doctorates from several universities, including one from Universidad Francisco Marroquín in Guatemala, an institution that also honored him with the psychology clinic that bears his name. In this interview he explains his views on the relations between concepts like freedom, circumstances, responsibility or attitude." ["post_title"]=> string(88) "Libertad y responsabilidadFreedom and responsibility" ["post_excerpt"]=> string(0) "" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["comment_status"]=> string(4) "open" ["ping_status"]=> string(4) "open" ["post_password"]=> string(0) "" ["post_name"]=> string(26) "libertad-y-responsabilidad" ["to_ping"]=> string(0) "" ["pinged"]=> string(0) "" ["post_modified"]=> string(19) "2020-03-01 01:31:41" ["post_modified_gmt"]=> string(19) "2020-03-01 00:31:41" ["post_content_filtered"]=> string(0) "" ["post_parent"]=> int(0) ["guid"]=> string(29) "http://whatonline.org/?p=4075" ["menu_order"]=> int(0) ["post_type"]=> string(4) "post" ["post_mime_type"]=> string(0) "" ["comment_count"]=> string(1) "0" ["filter"]=> string(3) "raw" } [3]=> object(WP_Post)#1805 (24) { ["ID"]=> int(296) ["post_author"]=> string(4) "2046" ["post_date"]=> string(19) "2012-05-18 00:16:56" ["post_date_gmt"]=> string(19) "2012-05-17 22:16:56" ["post_content"]=> string(4605) "El poder de la sonrisa es tan grande que el solo hecho de esbozarla ya produce efectos beneficiosos. Richard Wiseman, catedrático de Comprensión Pública de la Psicología en la Universidad de Hertfordshire, en Reino Unido, nos recuerda en una entrevista concedida a Eduard Punset que 'cuando te obligas a sonreír, eso te anima, te hace sentir más feliz. Eso sí, hay que mantener la sonrisa en la cara durante unos 15 segundos, mantenerla ahí'. Un sencillo ejercicio: párate, respira suavemente y dirige la atención hacia tu cara. Comienza por la frente, date cuenta de las sensaciones que vienen de ella, nota si hay alguna tensión y relájala. Párate especialmente en las mandíbulas y la lengua, porque es muy común que las mantengamos contraídas y en tensión. Respira y suéltalas. Relaja la boca. Coloca suavemente y sin forzar la punta de la lengua sobre la encía superior, por detrás de tus dientes delanteros. Verás cómo se relajan automáticamente los labios y se esboza una suave sonrisa. La cara es una de las partes más sensibles de nuestro cuerpo. Hay en ella un conjunto de elementos muy diferentes entre sí que configuran nuestra tarjeta de presentación: ojos, boca, frente, cejas, mejillas, mentón... En algunas de estas partes —mandíbula y frente son puntos neurálgicos— se concentran muchas de nuestras tensiones habituales, sobre todo miedo y rabia. Por eso es importante darse cuenta de cómo tenemos la cara, saber qué dice de nosotros y tomar conciencia de ello, relajar sus músculos y comenzar así a cambiar nuestra actitud. Muchas personas de diferentes épocas y culturas se han referido a la extraordinaria singularidad de la sonrisa y a su capacidad para el tránsito del yo al tú. Según María Jesús Ribas 'la sonrisa no es simplemente la manifestación de un sentimiento interno de alegría, sintonía o bienestar; es una forma de expresión exclusiva de los seres humanos, y es también la parte más visible de una unión íntima entre dos mentes'. El Dalai Lama considera 'una sonrisa como algo único en un ser humano. Una sonrisa es también una poderosa comunicación. Una sonrisa sincera es la expresión perfecta del amor y la compasión humanas'. La Madre Teresa de Calcuta estaba convencida de que 'la paz empieza con una sonrisa', y el escritor ruso Leo Tolstoy llegó a asegurar que 'el niño reconoce a su madre por la sonrisa'.The power of smile is so big that only the fact of slightly doing it already produces beneficial effects. Richard Wiseman, a Public Understanding of Psychology professor in the University of Hertfordshire, in UK, remembers us in an interview with Eduard Punset that 'when you force yourself to smile, it encourages you, it makes you feel happier. This said, you have to keep your smile for 15 seconds, keep it there'. A simple exercise: stop, breathe gently and focus your attention on your face. Start with your forehead; be aware of the feelings that come from it, if there is any type of strain, relax it. Pay special attention to your jaws and tongue, because we tend to keep them strained. Breathe and relax them. Relax your mouth. Gently, put the tip of your tongue on your upper gum, behind your front teeth. You will see how you lips are immediately relaxed and you gently smile. Your face is one of the most sensible parts of your body. A set of various elements, each of them unique, forms your presentation card: eyes, mouth, forehead, eyebrows, cheeks... Fear and rage, some of our most common tensions, tend to gather around some of these parts —your jaw and forehead are neuralgic points—. This is the reason why it is important to know how your face is, what it says about one y be aware of it, relax our muscles and start to change our attitude. Many people from different times and cultures have referred to the smile’s extraordinary singularity and its ability to make the transition between one’s self to others. In words of María Jesús Ribas, 'the smile it’s not only the display of an inner feeling of joy, harmony or welfare; it is an exclusive form of expression for human beings and it is as well the most visible part of an intimate union between two minds'. The Dalai Lama considers 'a smile as something unique in a human being. A smile is also a powerful communication tool. A sincere smile is the perfect expression for human love and compassion'. Mother Theresa of Calcuta was convinced that 'peace starts with a smile' and Russian writer Leon Tólstoi even said 'a kid recognizes his mother by a smile'." 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